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ADP 5-0 & ADRP ​5-0 Operations Process
1. Q. What does ADP 5-0 cover?
A: Operations Process

2. Q. What does the Operations Process constitute for the Army?
A: The Operations Process constitutes the Army’s view on Planning, Preparing, Executing, and Assessing Operations

3. Q. What does the Operations Process account for?
A: It accounts for the Complex, Ever-Changing, and uncertain Nature of Operations and Recognizes that a Military Operation is Foremost a Human Undertaking

4. Q. Fig 1 What is the Army’s Framework for Exercising Mission Command?
A: The Operations Process 

5. Q. Fig 1 What are the Major Command Activities performed During Operations?
A: 1. Planning 2. Preparing 3. Executing 4. Continuously Assessing the Operation

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6. Q. Fig 1 What is Planning?
A: The Art and Science of Understanding a Situation, Envisioning a Desired Future, and Laying out Effective ways of bringing that Future about

7. Q. Fig 1 What is Preparing?
A: Those Activities performed by Units and Soldiers to Improve their Ability to Execute an Operation

8. Q. Fig 1 What is Execution?
A: Putting a Plan into Action by Applying Combat Power to Accomplish the Mission

9. Q. Fig 1  What is Assessing?

A: The Continuous Determination of the Progress toward Accomplishing a Task, Creating an Effect, or Achieving an Objective

10. Q. Fig 1 What are the four Principles that Guide the Operations Process?

A:  1. Commanders Drive the Operations Process 2. Apply Critical and Creative Thinking 3. Build and Maintain Situational Understanding 4. Encourage Collaboration and Dialog

11. Q. Para 1 What are the Major Mission Command Activities performed During Operations?

A: Planning, Preparing, Executing, and Assessing the operation

12. Q. Para 2 What happens upon Completion of the Initial Order?

A: Planning Continues as Leaders Revise the Plan based on Changing Circumstances 

13. Q. Para 3 What is the Staff’s Role During the Operations Process?

A: to Assist Commanders with Understanding Situations, Making and Implementing Decisions, Controlling Operations, and Assessing Progress

14. Q. Para 3 What other function does the Staff perform During the Operations Process besides Assisting the Commander?

A: Staff Assists Subordinate Units and keeps Units and Organizations Outside the Headquarters informed Throughout the Operations Process

15. Q. Para 4 During the Operations Process, what does Mission Command require?

A: an Environment of Mutual Trust and Shared Understanding among Commanders, Staffs, and Subordinates 

16. Q. Para 4 What type of Command Climate is required?

A: a Command Climate in which Commanders Encourage Subordinates to Accept Prudent Risk and Exercise Disciplined Initiative to Seize Opportunities and Counter Threats within the Commander’s Intent 

17. Q. Para 4 What allows Subordinates the Greatest possible Freedom of Action?

A: Commanders Focusing their Instructions on the Purpose of the Operation Rather than on the Details of How to Perform Assigned Tasks 

18. Q. Para 6 How do Commanders Drive the Operations Process?

A: Through Understanding, Visualizing, Describing, Directing, Leading, and Assessing Operations

19. Q. Para 7 What does it mean to Understand Something?

A: to Grasp its Nature and Significance

20. Q. Para 9 What are the three ways Commanders Express their Visualization?

A: 1. Commander’s Planning Guidance, including an Operational Approach 2. Commander’s Critical Information Requirements 3. Essential Elements of Friendly Information

21. Q. Para 10 What is the Commander’s Intent?

A: Clear and Concise Expression of the Purpose of the Operation and the Desired Military End State that supports Mission Command, Provides Focus to the Staff, and helps Subordinate and Supporting Commanders Act to Achieve the Commander’s desired Results Without further Orders, even when the Operation does Not unfold as Planned 

22. Q. Para 11 What is Operational Approach?

A: Broadly Describes When, Where, and How the Commander intends to Employ Combat Power to Accomplish the Mission within the Higher Commander’s Intent 

23. Q. Para 12 What does the Acronym CCIR stand for?

A: Commander’s Critical Information Requirements

24. Q. Para 12 What are the two Components of CCIR’s?

A: Friendly Force Information Requirements and Priority Intelligence Requirements 

25. Q. Para 13 What does the Acronym EEFI stand for?

A: Essential Elements of Friendly Information

26. Q. Para 14 What are the seven ways Commanders can Direct Forces throughout the Operations Process?

A: 1. Preparing and Approving Plans and Orders 2. Establishing Command and Support Relationships 3. Assigning and Adjusting Tasks, Control Measures, and Task Organization 4. Positioning Units to Maximize Combat Power 5. Positioning Key Leaders at Critical Places and Times to ensure Supervision 6. Allocating Resources to Exploit Opportunities and Counter Threats 7. Committing the Reserve as Required

27. Q. Para 15. How does a Commander show Leadership?

A: By Providing Purpose, Direction and Motivation to Subordinate Commanders, Staff and Soldiers

28. Q. Para 16 Why do Commanders Continuously Assess the Situation?

A: to better understand Current Conditions and Determine how the Operation is Progressing

29. Q. Para 18 What are the eight Interrelated Operational Variables that Commanders and Staff use to Analyze and Describe an Operational Environment?

A: 1. Political 2. Military 3. Economic 4. Social 5. Information 6. Infrastructure 7.Physical Environment 8. Time

30. Q. Para 18 What does the Acronym PMESII-PT stand for?

A: the Eight Interrelated Operational Variables: Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructure, Physical Environment, and Time 

31. Q. Para 18 What does the Acronym METT-TC stand for?

A: Mission, Enemy, Terrain and weather, Troops and support available, Time available, and Civil considerations

32. Q. Para 18 What are the six Mission Variables?

A: Mission, Enemy, Terrain and weather, Troops and support available, Time available, and Civil considerations (METT-TC)

33. Q. Para 19 What is Critical Thinking?

A: Critical Thinking is Purposeful and Reflective Judgment about what to Believe or what to Do in Response to Observations, Experience, Verbal or Written Expressions, or Arguments 

34. Q. Para 20 What are some things included in the Analysis During the Operations Process?

A: Weapons System Ranges, Mobility Options Afforded by Terrain and Weather, Operational Reach, Communications System Range, Sustainment, and other Considerations of the Operational and Mission Variables 

35. Q. Para 23 What are the four Major Mission Command Activities that the Operations Process consists of?

A: 1. Planning 2.Preparing 3. Executing 4. Assessing

36. Q. Para 24 What is Planning?

A: Planning is the Art and Science of Understanding a Situation, Envisioning a Desired Future, and Laying out Effective Ways of Bringing that Future about

37. Q. Para 25 What will Good Detailed Planning work out?

A: the Scheduling, Coordination, or Technical problems involved with Moving, Sustaining, and Synchronizing the Actions of Force as a Whole toward a Common Goal

38. Q. Para 27 What are the ten Elements of Operational Art?

A: 1. End State and Conditions 2. Center of Gravity 3. Decisive Points 4. Lines of Operations and Lines of Effort 5. Operational Reach 6. Basing 7. Tempo 8. Phasing and Transitions 9. Culmination 10. Risk

39. Q. Para 28 What are the three Army Planning Methodologies?

A: 1. Army Design Methodology 2. Military Decision Making Process 3. Troop Leading Procedures

40. Q. Para 28 What does the Acronym MDMP stand for?

A: Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)

41. Q. Para 28 What does the Acronym TLP stand for?

A: Troop Leading Procedures (TLP)

42. Q. Para 29 What is the Army Design Methodology?

A: Army Design Methodology is a Methodology for Applying Critical and Creative Thinking to Understand, Visualize, and Describe unfamiliar Problems and Approaches to Solving them

43. Q. Para 32 What is the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)?

A: Military Decision Making Process is an Iterative Planning Methodology to Understand the Situation and Mission, Develop a Course of Action, and Produce an Operation Plan or Order

44. Q. Para 33 Who will Higher Headquarters Solicit Input and Continually Share Information with concerning Future Operations?

A: Subordinate and Adjacent Units, Supporting and Supported Units, and Unified Action Partners

45. Q. Para 33 How will Higher Headquarters Solicit Input and Continually Share Information Concerning Future Operations?

A: Through Planning Meetings, Warning Orders, and Other Means 

46. Q. Para 34 What are the steps of MDMP?

A: 1. Receipt of Mission 2. Mission Analysis 3. Course of Action (COA) Development 4. Coa Analysis 5. Coa Comparison 6. Coa Approval 7. Orders Production, Dissemination and Transition

47. Q. Para 35 What are Troop Leading Procedures (TLP’s)?

A: Troop Leading Procedures are a Dynamic Process used by Small-Unit Leaders to Analyze a Mission, Develop a Plan, and Prepare for an Operation

48. Q. Para 35. What are the Eight Troop Leading Procedure Steps?

A: 1. Receive the Mission 2. Issue the Warning Order 3. Make a Tentative Plan 4. Initiate Movement 5. Conduct Reconnaissance 6. Complete the Plan 7. Issue the Order 8. Supervise and Refine the Plan

49. Q. Para 36 Do Leaders have toPperform all Eight of the TLP’s in Order?

A: No, they are Not Rigid and Can be Done in Another Order Depending on Specific Mission

50. Q. Para 36 What Should Higher Headquarters Do to Optimize Available Time for Subordinates to Perform TLP’s?

A: They Should Issue Frequent Warning Orders (WARNO) to Allow Subordinate Units Maximum Time to Conduct TLP’s

51. Q. Para 38 Who is the Most Important Participants in Effective Planning?

A: The Commander

52. Q. Para 40 What Type of Plans Help Units Adapt Quickly to Changing Circumstances?

A: Flexible Plans

53. Q. Para 41 What are Mission Orders?

A: Directives that Emphasize to Subordinates the Results to be Attained, Not how they are to achieve them 

54. Q. Para 41 What should Mission Orders Clearly Convey?

A: the Unit’s Mission and the Commander’s Intent 

55. Q. Para 42 What is a Guide to Allocate Time Available that Commanders and Staff should use when Planning?

A: “One-Third—Two-Thirds Rule”

56. Q. Para 42 What is the “One-Third—Two-Thirds Rule”?

A: Commanders and Staff use One-Third of the Time Available Before Execution for their Planning and Allocate the Remaining Two-Thirds of the Time Available before execution To their Subordinates for Planning and Preparation

57. Q. Para 43 Once a Plan has been made, can it be Changed or Modified?

A: Yes

58. Q. Para 43 What are some of the ways that help to Refine a Plan?

A: Confirmation Briefings, Rehearsals and Changes in the Situation

59. Q. Para 44 What are some of the 17 Mission Preparation Activities?

A: 1. Continue to Coordinate and Conduct Liaison 2. Initiate information Collection 3. Initiate Security Operations 4. Initiate Troop Movement 5. Initiate Sustainment Preparations 6. Initiate Network Preparations 7. Manage Terrain 8. Prepare Terrain 9. Conduct Confirmation Briefs 10. Conduct Rehearsals 11. Conduct Plans-to-Operations Transitions 12. Revise and Refine the Plan 13. Integrate new Soldiers and Units 14. Complete Task Organization 15. Train 16. Perform Pre-Operations Checks and Inspections 17. Continue to Build Partnerships and Teams 

60. Q. Para 45 What are the Five Guidelines that Aid in Effective Preparation of Subordinates?

A: 1. Secure and Protect the Force 2. Improve Situational Understanding 3. Understand, Rehearse and Refine the Plan 4. Integrate, Organize and Configure the Force 5. Ensure Forces and Resources are Ready and Positioned

61. Q. Para 46 When is the Force as a whole Most vulnerable to Surprise and Enemy Attack?

A: During Preparation

62. Q. Para 46 What is done to Minimize Vulnerability During Preparation?

A: Security Operations—Screen, Guard, Cover, Area Security, and Local Security—are Essential During Preparation

63 Q. Para 48 What do Rehearsals help Leaders and Soldiers understand?

A: they help improve Understanding of the Concept of Operations, Control Measures, Decision Points, and Command and Support Relationships

64. Q. Para 50 What ensures that the Right Forces are in the Right Place, at the Right Time, with the Right Equipment and other resources Ready to Execute the Operation?

A: Effective Preparation  

65. Q. Para 51 What is Execution?

A: Execution is putting a Plan into Action by applying Combat Power to Accomplish The Mission

66. Q. Para 51 During Execution, Commanders will apply Combat Power for what purpose?

A: to Seize, Retain, and Exploit the Initiative to Gain and Maintain a position of Relative Advantage

67. Q. Para 55 What Guides Aid Subordinate Leaders in effective Execution?

A: 1. Seize the Initiative through Action 2. Accept Prudent Risk to Exploit Opportunities

68. Q. Para 56 How can Commanders create conditions for Seizing the Initiative?

A: By Taking Action

69. Q. Para 56 When faced with an Uncertain Situation what do people Naturally Tend to do?

A: Hesitate and Gather more Information to Reduce the Uncertainty

70. Q. Para 56 What could Hesitation and Waiting to gather more Information do in an Operation?

A: it Could Give the Enemy the Advantage as they Could Seize the Initiative

71. Q. Para 57 What is Prudent Risk?

A: Prudent Risk is a Deliberate Exposure to Potential Injury or Loss when the Commander Judges the outcome in Terms of Mission Accomplishment as Worth the Cost

72. Q. Para 60 What are the Primary Tools for Assessing?

A: Running Estimates, After Action Reviews, and the Assessment Plan

73. Q. Para 60 What do Running Estimates provide?

A: Information, Conclusions, and Recommendations from the Perspective of Each Staff Section

74. Q. Para 60 What do Formal and Informal After Action Reviews help identify?

A: What was Supposed to Happen, What went Right, and what went Wrong for a particular Action or Operation, and How the Commander and Staff Should Do things Differently in the Future

75. Q. Para 63 What should Commanders Avoid burdening Subordinates and Staffs with?

A: Commanders Should Avoid Burdening Subordinates and Staffs with Overly Detailed Assessments and Collection Tasks

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