​6. Q. What is the Operational Environment?
A: A Composite of the Conditions, Circumstances, and Influences that affect the Employment of Capabilities and Bear on the decisions of the Commander

7. Q. Army Leaders Plan, Prepare, Execute, and Assess Operations by Analyzing the Operational Environment by using what Variables?
A: Operational Variables and Mission Variables

8. Q. What do Mission Variables ( METT-TC) consist of?
A: Mission, Enemy, Terrain and Weather, Troops and Support available, Time available, Civil Considerations (METT-TC)

9. Q. What does METT-TC stand for?
A: Mission, Enemy, Terrain and Weather, Troops and Support available, Time available, Civil Considerations (METT-TC)

10. Q. What does PMESII-PT stand for?
A: Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructre, Physical Environment, Time (PMESII-PT)

11. Q. What are the most likely Security Threats that Army Forces will Encounter?
A: Hybrid Threats

12. Q. What are Hybrid Threats?
A: The Diverse and Dynamic combination of Regular Forces, Irregular Forces, Terrorist Forces, Criminal Elements, or a combination of these forces and elements all unified to achieve mutually benefitting effects

13. Q. What are the two most challenging potential Enemy Threats that the U.S. face?
A: A Nonstate Entity and a Nuclear-Capable Nation-State partnered with one or more Nonstate Actors

14. Q. What is a Nonstate Enemy Threat?
A: Entity possessing Weapons of Mass Destruction or other unique methods to challenge U.S. Dominance by Attacking Public Will

15. Q .What is a Nuclear-capable Nation-State?
A: Can employ advanced Information Technology, Conventional Military Forces armed with Modern Equipment, and Irregular Forces at various levels of Organization, Training, and Equipment.

16. Q. What is the Army’s two Core Competencies?
A: Combined Arms Maneuver and Wide Area Security

17. Q. What does the Army’s two Core Competencies enable Army Forces to achieve?
A: To Defeat or Destroy an Enemy, Seize or occupy Key Terrain, Protect or Secure Critical Assets and Populations, and Prevent the Enemy from gaining a position of Advantage

18. Q. What is the Philosophy of Mission Command?
A:The Exercise of Authority and Direction by the Commander using Mission Orders to enable disciplined initiative within the Commander’s Intent

19. Q. What is the foundation of Unified Land Operations built on?
​A: Initiative, Decisive Action, and Mission Command

​20. Q. How does the Army Seize, Retain and Exploit the Initiative?
A: By striking the Enemy, both Lethally and Nonlethally, in time, places, or manners for which the Enemy is not prepared

21. Q. What is Seizing the Initiative?
A: Setting and Dictating the Terms of Action

22. Q. How does Seizing the Initiative affect the Enemy?
A: It degrades the Enemy’s Ability to function as a Coherent Force

23. Q. What must Leaders do to prevent an Enemy’s recovery and retain the initiative?
A: Follow up with a series of actions that Destroy Enemy Capability, seize decisive terrain, protect populations and critical infrastructure, and degrade the coherence of the Enemy Force

24. Q. From an Enemy point of view, what must U.S. Operations be?
A: Rapid, Unpredictable, and Disorienting

25. Q. How do Army Forces conduct Decisive and Sustainable Land Operations?
A: Through the simultaneous combination of Offensive, Defensive, and Stability Operations

26. Q. What are Offensive Operations?
A: Operations conducted to Defeat and Destroy Enemy Forces and Seize terrain, Resources, and Population Centers

27. Q. What are the types of Offensive Operations?
A: Movement to Contact, Attack, Exploitation, and Pursuit

28. Q. What are Defensive Operations?
A: Operations conducted to defeat an Enemy Attack, Gain time, Economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for Offensive and Stability tasks

29. Q. What are the types of Defensive Operations?
A: Mobile Defense, Area Defense, and Retrograde

30. Q. What are Stability Operations?
A: Military Missions, Tasks, and Activities conducted outside the United States to maintain or Reestablish a Safe and Secure Environment and to provide Essential Governmental Services, Emergency Infrastructure Reconstruction, and Humanitarian Relief

31. Q. What are the five tasks for Stability Operations?
A: 1. Establish Civil Security
2. Establish Civil Control
3. Restore Essential Services
4. Support to Governance
​5. Support to Economic and Infrastructure Development

32. Q. What are the tasks for Department of Defense support to U.S. civil authorities?
​A: 1. Provide support for Domestic Disasters
2. Provide support for Domestic Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Incidents
3. Provide support for Domestic Civilian Law Enforcement Agencies
4. Provide other designated support

33. Q. What are the two Core Competencies for the Army?
A: Combined Arms Maneuver and Wide Area Security

34. Q. What is Combined Arms Maneuver?
A: The Application of the Elements of Combat Power in Unified Action to defeat Enemy Ground Forces; to Seize, Occupy, and Defend Land Areas; and to achieve Physical, Temporal, and Psychological advantages over the Enemy to Seize and Exploit the Initiative

35. Q. What is Wide Area Security?
A: The Application of the elements of Combat Power in Unified Action to protect Populations, Forces, Infrastructure, and Activities; to Deny the Enemy Positions of Advantage; and to Consolidate gains in order to Retain the Initiative

36. Q. What is the Mission Command Philosophy?
A: The Exercise of Authority and Direction by the Commander using Mission Orders to enable Disciplined Initiative within the Commander’s Intent to empower Agile and Adaptive Leaders in the conduct of Unified Land Operations

37. Q. What is an “Operation”?
A: A Military Action, consisting of two of more related Tactical Actions, designed to achieve a Strategic Objective, in whole or in part

​38. Q. What is a Tactical Action?
A: A Battle or Engagement, Employing lethal or nonlethal Actions, designed for a specific purpose relative to the Enemy, the Terrain, Friendly Forces, or other entity

39. Q. What are the characteristics of an Army Operation?
A: 1. Flexibility
2. Integration
3. Lethality
4. Adaptability
5. Depth
6. Synchronization

40. Q. What can Leaders achieve by demonstrating flexibility?
​A: Tactical, Operational, and Strategic success

41. Q. Para 26 What is Integration of Army Forces?
​A: It is Integrating a Unit into larger Joint, Interagency, and frequently Multinational effort and realizing that the Unit is part of Army Operations within this larger effort of Military Operations

42. Q. Para 27 Why is it important for Lethality of our Forces?
A: The Capability for the Lawful and Expert application of Lethal Force builds the foundation for effective Offensive, Defensive, and Stability Operations

43. Q. Para 28 What must Army Leaders understand about Adaptability?
A: Army Leaders accept that no prefabricated solutions to tactical or operational problems exist

44. Q. Para 28 Why is Adaptability Essential?
A: Adaptability is Essential to Seizing, Retaining, and Exploiting the Initiative based on relevant understanding of the specific situation

45. Q. Para 29 What does Adaptation require?
A: An understanding of the Operational Environment

46. Q. Para 30 What is Depth?
A: Depth is the extension of Operations in Space, Time, or Purpose

47. Q. Para 30 How should Army Leaders use depth while Striking the Enemy?
A: By arranging activities across the Entire Operational Framework to achieve the most Decisive result

48. Q. Para 30 What is the purpose for Army leaders to employ depth during operations?
A: To Prevent the effective Employment of Enemy Reserves, Command and Control Nodes, Logistics, and other capabilities both in and out of direct contact with Friendly Forces

49. Q. Para 31 Why is it important for Units to Operate in Depth?
A: It makes Army Forces resilient over protracted periods, a prerequisite for sustained land combat

​50. Q. Para 32 What is Synchronization?
A:The Arrangement of Military Actions in Time, Space, and Purpose to produce maximum relative Combat Power at a Decisive Place and Time

51. Q. Para 32 What does Synchronization during Operations achieve?
A: It Temporarily Disrupts the Enemy organization and allows for Exploitation

52. Q. Para 35 What is Operational Art?
A: The pursuit of Strategic Objectives, in whole or in part, through the arrangement of Tactical Actions in Time, Space, and Purpose

​53. Q. Para 38 What is Operations Structure?
A: The Army’s common construct for Operations which allows Army Leaders to organize effort rapidly and effectively in a manner commonly understood across the Army

54. Q. Para 40 What is Planning?
A: The Art and Science of understanding a Situation, Envisioning a desired future, and laying out effective ways of bringing about that future

55. Q. Para 42 What are Troop Leading Procedures?
A: A dynamic process used by Small-Unit Leaders to analyze a Mission, Develop a Plan, and Prepare for an Operation

​56. Q. Para 44 What does Preparation consists of?
A: Activities that Units perform to improve their ability to Execute an Operation

57. Q. Para 45 What is Execution?
A: Execution puts a plan into action by applying Combat Power to accomplish the Mission and using situational understanding to assess progress and make execution and adjustment decisions

58. Q. Para 46 What is Assessment?
A: Is continuously monitoring and evaluating the current situation and the progress of an Operation

59. Q. Para 48 What is An Area of Operations?
A: Is an Operational Area defined by the Joint Force Commander for Land and Maritime Forces that should be large enough to accomplish their Missions and Protect their Forces

60. Q. Para 49 What is an Area of Interest?
A: That area of concern to the Commander, including the area of Influence, areas adjacent there to, and extending into Enemy Territory

61. Q. Para 51 What are Deep Operations?
A: They involve efforts to Disrupt Uncommitted Enemy Forces

62. Q. Para 52 What are Close Operations?
A: They Involve efforts to have immediate effects with committed Friendly Forces

63. Q. Para 56 What do Shaping Operations do?
A: Create and preserve conditions for the success of the Decisive Operation

64. Q. Para 57 What do Sustaining Operations enable?
A: The Decisive Operation or Shaping Operation by generating and maintaining Combat Power

65. Q. Para 59 What is the Main Effort?
A: The designated Subordinate Unit whose Mission at a given point in time is Most Critical to overall Mission Success

66. Q. Para 60 What are Supporting Efforts?
A: Are designated Subordinate Units with Missions that Support the success of the Main Effort

67. Q. Para 61 What is the Warfighting Function?
A: A group of Tasks and Systems (people, organizations, information, and processes) united by a Common Purpose that Commanders use to accomplish Missions

​68. Q. Para 62 What does the Mission Command Warfighting Function do?
A: Develops and Integrates those activities enabling a Commander to balance the Art of Command and the Science of Control

69. Q. Para 63 What is Movement and Maneuver Warfighting Function?
A: The related tasks and systems that Move and Employ Forces to achieve a position of relative advantage over the Enemy and other Threats

70. Q. Para 64 What is the Intelligence Warfighting Function?
A: The related Tasks and Systems that facilitate understanding the Enemy, Terrain, and Civil Considerations

71. Q. Para 65 What is the Fires Warfighting Function?
A: The related Task and Systems that provide Collective and Coordinated use of Army Indirect Fires, Air and Missile Defense, and Joint Fires through the Targeting Process

72. Q. Para 66 What is the Sustainment Warfighting Function?
A: The related Tasks and Systems that provide Support and Services to Ensure Freedom of Action, extend Operational reach, and prolong Endurance

73. Q. Para 67 What is the Protection Warfighting Function?
A: The related Tasks and Systems that Preserve the Force so the Commander can apply Maximum Combat Power to accomplish the Mission

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ADP & ADRP 3-0 Unified Land Operations Download Most Recent ADP 3-0 Here

1. Q. What does Unified Land Operations describe?
​A: How the Army Seizes, Retains, and Exploits the Initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained Land Operations through simultaneous Offensive, Defensive, and Stability Operations in order to Prevent or Deter Conflict, Prevail in War, and create the conditions for favorable Conflict Resolution

2. Q. What is Unified Land Operations?

A: The Army’s basic Warfighting Doctrine and is the Army’s contribution to Unified Action and is an Intellectual outgrowth of both previous Operations Doctrine and Recent Combat Experience

3. Q. What is The United States Army?

A: America’s Sons and Daughters, Men and Women of Courage and Character, and Leaders of consequence—bonded together in a Profession of Arms—Organized, Trained, and Equipped to be the most Decisive Land Force in the World

4. Q. Describe Army Doctrine?

A: A body of thought on how Army Forces Operate as an integral part of a Joint Force, Doctrine acts as a guide to action rather than a set of fixed rules and also serves as the basis for decisions about Organization, Training, Leader Development, Materiel, Soldiers, and Facilities and helps Partners understand how the Army will operate

5. Q. What do Operational Variables PMESII-PT consist of?

A: Political, Military, Economic, Social, Information, Infrastructre, Physical Environment, Time (PMESII-PT)