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ADP 4-0 & ADRP 4-0 Sustainment 
1. Q. What does ADP 4-0 cover?
A: Sustainment.

2. Q. Para 1. What three major elements of sustainment?
A: Logistics, personnel services and health services.

3. Q. Para 1. What is the Sustainment Warfighting Function?
A: Sustainment Warfighting  Function  is related tasks and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong endurance

4. Q. Para 2. What is Logistics?
A: Logistics is planning and executing of the movement and support of forces. 

5. Q. Para 2. What are some examples of Logistics?
A: Transportation (FM 55-1), Supply (FM 10-1), Field services (FM 10-1), Distribution (ATTP 4-0.1), Operational contract support
(ATTP 4-10), General engineering support (FM 3-34)

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6. Q. Para 3. What are Personnel Services?
A: Personnel services are sustainment functions that man and fund the force, maintain Soldier and Family readiness, promote the moral and ethical values of the nation, and enable the fighting qualities of the Army

7. Q. Para 3. What do Personnel services consist of?
A: Human resources support (FM 1-0), Financial management operations (FM 1-06), Legal support (FM 1-04), Religious support (FM 1-05) and Band support (ATTP 1-19)

8. Q. Para 4. What is Health service support?
A: Health service support encompasses all support and services performed, provided, and arranged by the Army Medical Department to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental and physical wellbeing of personnel in the Army and, as directed, in other Services, agencies, and organizations

9. Q. Para 4. What does Health service support consists of?

A: Casualty care, Medical evacuation, Medical logistics

10. Q. Para 4. What does Casualty Care consist of?

A: Organic and area medical support, Hospitalization, Dental care, Behavioral health/neuropsychiatric treatment, Clinical laboratory services and Treatment of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear patients

11. Q. Para 5-13. What are the principals of sustainability?

A: Integration, anticipation, responsiveness, simplicity, economy, survivability, continuity and improvision.

12. Q. Para 6. What is Integration?

A: Integration is combining all of the elements of sustainment (tasks, functions, systems, processes, organizations) to operations assuring unity of command and effort

13. Q. Para 7. What is Anticipation?

A: Anticipation is the ability to foresee operational requirements and initiate actions that satisfy a response without waiting for an operations order or fragmentary order

14. Q. Para 8. What is Responsiveness?

A: Responsiveness is the ability to react to changing requirements and respond to meet the needs to maintain support

15. Q. Para 9. What is Simplicity?

A: Simplicity relates to processes and procedures to minimize the complexity of sustainment

16. Q. Para 10. What is Economy?

A: Economy is providing sustainment resources in an efficient manner to enable a commander to employ all assets to achieve the greatest effect possible

17. Q. Para 11. What is Survivability?

A: Survivability is all aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies while simultaneously deceiving the enemy

18. Q. Para 12. What is Continuity?

A: Continuity is the uninterrupted provision of sustainment across all levels of war

19. Q. Para 13. What is Improvision?

A: Improvisation is the ability to adapt sustainment operations to unexpected situations or circumstances affecting a mission

20. Q. Para 14. What does the principles of personnel services do?

A: the principles of personnel services guide the functions for maintaining Soldier and Family support, establishing morale and welfare, funding the force, and enforcing the rules of law

21. Q. Para 15-19 What are the five principles that are unique to personnel services?

A: Synchronization, Timeliness, Stewardship, Accuracy and Consistency

22. Q. Para 15. What is Synchronization?

A: Synchronization is ensuring personnel services are effectively aligned with military actions in time, space, and purpose to
produce maximum relative readiness and operational capabilities at a decisive place and time

23. Q. Para 16. What is Timeliness?

A: Timeliness ensures decision makers have an access to relevant personnel services information and analysis that support current and future operations

24. Q. Para 17. What is Stewardship?

A: Stewardship is the careful and responsible management of resources entrusted to the government in order to execute responsible governance

25. Q. Para 18. What is Accuracy?

A: Accuracy of information impacts the decisions made by commanders and also Soldiers and their Families

26. Q. Para 19. What is Consistency?

A: Consistency involves providing uniform and compatible guidance and support to forces across all levels of operations

27. Q. Para 20. What do the principles of the Army Health System (AHS) do?

A: The principles of the Army Health System (AHS) guide medical planners in developing operational plans which are effective,
efficient, flexible, and executable 

28. Q. Para 21-26. What are the Principles of the Army Health System (AHS)?

A: Conformity, Proximity, Flexibility, Mobility, Continuity and Control

29. Q. Para 21. What is Conformity in AHS?

A: Conformity with the tactical plan is the most basic element for effectively providing AHS support

30. Q. Para 22. What is Proximity in AHS?

A: Proximity is to provide AHS support to sick, injured, and wounded Soldiers at the right time and to keep morbidity and mortality to a minimum

31. Q. Para 23. What is Flexibility in AHS?

A: Flexibility is being prepared and empowered to shift AHS resources to meet changing requirements

32. Q. Para 24. What is Mobility in AHS?

A: Mobility is to ensure that AHS assets remain in supporting distance to support maneuvering forces

33. Q. Para 25. What is Continuity in AHS? 

A: Continuity in care and treatment is achieved by moving the patient through progressive, phased roles of care, extending from the point of injury or wounding to the CONUS-support base

34. Q. Para 26. What is Control in AHS?

A: Control is required to ensure that scarce AHS resources are efficiently employed and support the tactical and strategic plan

35. Q. Para 27. What is Unified Action?

A: the synchronization, coordination and integration of activities

36. Q. Para 28. What is Joint interdependence?

A: Joint interdependence is the purposeful reliance by one Service’s forces on another Service’s capabilities to maximize the
complementary and reinforcing effects of both 

37. Q. Para 29. What does the Air Force and the Air Mobility Command provide?

A: they provide worldwide cargo and passenger airlift, air refueling, and aeromedical evacuation

38. Q. Para 30. What is Joint logistics over-the-shore operations?

A: Joint logistics over-the-shore operations occur when Navy and Army forces conduct logistics over-the-shore operations together under a joint force commander

39. Q. Para 30. How does the Navy support over-the-shore operations?

A: with the use of container off-loading and transfer system and the offshore bulk fuel system

40. Q. Para 30. How does the Army support over-the-shore operations?

A: the Army provides lighterage, roll-on/rolloff discharge facilities, causeway systems, and shore-based water storage systems

41. Q. Para 32. What does the strategic base consists of?

A: the Department of Defense and industrial bases 

42. Q. Para 32. What does the Industrial Base do?

A: manufactures, maintains, modifies, and repairs resources required by U.S. forces

43. Q. Para 32. What does the Industrial Base consist of?

A: The industrial base, consisting of privately and government-owned capabilities

44. Q. Para 32. What does the Strategic Base do?

A: The strategic base generates Army capabilities which are employed across the strategic and operational environments

45. Q. Para 33. What does Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) provide?

A: the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) provides sustainment support to Joint Forces during peace and war by providing supply classes (CL) I, II, III bulk (B) package (P), IV, VIII and Class IX

46. Q. Para 33. What dose DLA Disposition Services provide?

A: DLA Disposition Services provides material reutilization, marketing, demilitarization and disposal services throughout the world and is an active partner with deployed units in contingency environments

47. Q. Para 34. What does the United States Transportation Command provide?

A: The United States Transportation Command provides common-user and commercial air, land, and sea transportation (including patient movement), terminal management, and aerial refueling to support deployment, sustainment, and redeployment of U.S. forces 

48. Q. Para 34. What are the three component commands that make up the United States Transportation Command? 

A: the Air Mobility Command, the Military Sealift Command and the U.S Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command 

49. Q. Para 35. What is the Defense Finance and Accounting Service is responsible for?

A: the delivery of accounting and financial management services for the DOD

50. Q. Para 36. What do the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command operations provide?

A: provide space-related tactical planning and support, expertise, advice, and liaison regarding available space capabilities that facilitate joint sustainment operations

51. Q. Para 38. How is the Theater Army responsible for Sustainment?

A: The Theater Army is responsible for preparation and administration support for the Army Forces assigned or attached to the Combatant Commander.

52. Q. Para 40. What are some examples of the Army’s sustainment Executive Agent responsibilities?

A: DOD Combat Feeding Research and Engineering Program; Management of Land-based Water Research in Support of Contingency Operations; Law of War Program; Defense Mortuary Affairs Program; Military Postal Service; Explosive Safety Management; Armed Services Blood Program Office 

53. Q. Para 41. What does Generating forces consist of?

A: Army organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain the operational Army’s capabilities for employment.

54. Q. Para 42. What is generating force is responsible for?

A: the generating force is responsible for moving Army forces to and from ports of embarkation

55. Q. Para 43. What is an example of an Army generating force?

A: the U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC)

56. Q.Para 43. What does the U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) provide?

A: provides theater support contracting services and Logistics Civil Augmentation Program support to Army forces conducting operations 

57. Q. Para 44. What are Operational Forces?

A: Operating forces are those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof

58. Q. Para 45. What functions does The Theater Army HQ perform?

A: functions that include reception, staging, onward movement, and integration; logistics over-the-shore operations; and security coordination

59. Q. Para 46. What is the role of the Theater Sustainment Command (TSC)?

A: The Theater Sustainment Command (TSC) serves as the senior Army sustainment HQ (less medical) for the Theater Army

60. Q. Para 46. What does the TSC provide?

A: The TSC provides mission command of units assigned, attached, or under its OPCON capabilities 

61. Q. Para 47. What is the Expeditionary Sustainment Commands (ESC)?

A: force pooled assets and are under the mission command of the TSC

62. Q. Para 47. What does the ESC do?

A: plans, prepares, executes, and assesses sustainment, distribution, theater opening, and reception, staging, and onward movement operations for Army forces in theater

63. Q. Para 48. What does the Theater Engineer Command (TEC) serve as?

A: The Theater Engineer Command (TEC) serves as the senior engineer headquarters for a Theater Army, land component headquarters, or potentially a JTF

64. Q. Para 48. What is the Theater Engineer Command (TEC) designed to do?

A: It is designed to mission command engineer capabilities for all assigned or attached engineer brigades and other engineer units and missions for the joint force land component or Theater Army commander

65. Q. Para 49. What is the Human Resource Sustainment Center?

A: The Human Resource Sustainment Center is a multifunctional organization (staff element), and theater-level center assigned to a TSC that integrates and ensures execution of personnel accountability, casualty, and postal functions throughout the theater

66. Q. Para 50. What is the Financial Management Center?

A: The Financial Management Center is a tailorable financial management unit whose primary mission is to provide technical coordination of all theater finance operations and serve as the principal advisor to the Theater Army G-8 and the TSC commander

67. Q. Para 51. What does the Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MEDCOM [DS]) serve as?

A: it serves as the senior medical command within the theater. The MEDCOM (DS) provides mission command for medical units delivering health care in support of deployed forces. 

68. Q. Para 45-51. What are some of the major sustainment operating force organizations?

A: Theater Sustainment Command (TSC); Theater Engineer Command (TEC); Human Resource Sustainment Center; Financial Management Center; Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MEDCOM [DS]) 

69. Q. Para 52. What is Interagency coordination?

A: Interagency coordination is the interaction that occurs between agencies of the U.S. Government, including the Department of Defense for the purpose of achieving an objective 

​70. Q. Para 52. Which U.S. military sustainment capabilities are requently requested through Interagency coordination?

A: intertheater and intratheater airlift; ground transportation of personnel, equipment and supplies; airfield control groups;
and port and railhead operations

71. Q. Para 53. When does Sustainment support to populations generally occur?

A: during stability tasks and defense support of civil authorities

72. Q. Para 56. What is Decisive Action?

A: Through decisive action Army units seize, retain, and exploit the initiative to gain a position of relative advantage over the enemy

73. Q. Para 56. How is Decisive Action achieved?

A: it is achieved through simultaneous combination of offensive, defensive, and stability tasks that set conditions for favorable
conflict resolution

74. Q. Para 57. What is a Sustaining Operation?

A: A sustaining operation is an operation at any echelon that enables the decisive operation or shaping operations by generating and maintaining combat power and is inseparable from decisive and shaping operations

75. Q. Para 57. What does Sustaining operations include?

A: Sustaining operations include personnel and logistical support, support security, movement control, terrain management, and infrastructure development 

76. Q. Para 58. What is Mission command?

A: Mission command is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations

77. Q. Para 59. What is Sustainment planning? 

A: Sustainment planning indirectly focuses on the threat but more specifically on sustaining friendly forces to the degree that the Army as a whole accomplishes the desired end state

78. Q. Para 60. What will a successful sustainment plan do?

A: A successful sustainment plan will extend operational reach, prevent culmination or loss of the initiative, manage transitions, exploit possible opportunities, and mitigate risk

79. Q. Para 61. What is operational reach?

A: distance and duration across which a unit can successfully employ military capabilities 

80. Q. Para 61. How is Operational reach facilitated?

A: by prepositioning stocks; capability to project Army forces and sustainment to an operational environment; to open theater ports; establish forward bases; and to close a theater upon conclusion of an operation

81. Q. Para 62. What is the Army Prepositioned Stocks (APS) program?

A: an Army strategic program

82. Q. Para 62. What are the primary purposes of APS?

A: to reduce the initial strategic lift required to support a force projection Army and to sustain the Soldier until lines of communication are established

83. Q. Para 62. What does the APS phase of the operation focuses on?

A: deployment, reception, drawing equipment, and staging in order to facilitate the integration of forces into the operation

84. Q. Para 63. What is Force Protection?

A: Force projection is the ability to project instruments of national power from the U. S. or another theater in response to requirements for military operations

85. Q. Para 63. What does Force Protection include?

A: the processes of mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment of forces

86. Q. Para 64. What is Theater Opening?

A: Theater opening is the ability to establish and operate ports of debarkation (air, sea, and rail), to establish a distribution system, and to facilitate throughput for the reception, staging, and onward movement of forces within a theater of operations

87. Q. Para 65. What are critical components for preparing theater opening?

A: Port opening and port operations 

88. Q. Para 66. What does Basing enable?

A: Basing directly enables and extends operational reach, and involves the provision of sustainable facilities and protected locations from which units can conduct operations

89. Q. Para 66. What is a base camp?

A: A base camp is an evolving military facility that supports military operations of a deployed unit and provides the necessary support and services for sustained operations

90. Q. Para 68. What is Theater Closing?

A: Theater closing is the process of redeploying Army forces and equipment from a theater, the drawdown and removal or disposition of Army non-unit equipment and materiel, and the transition of materiel and facilities back to host nation or civil authorities

91. Q. Para 69. What are the terminating tasks that Army sustainment organizations perform?

A: redeployment of remaining forces, drawdown of non-unit materiel, and transitioning of materiel, facilities and capabilities as specified in national agreements to host nation or civil authorities

92. Q. Para 70. What does Freedom of action enable?

A: Freedom of action enables commanders with the will to act, to achieve operational initiative and control and maintain operational tempo

93. Q. Para 71. What is the benefit of Negotiating and establishing agreements?

A: Through negotiation and agreements, Army forces can reduce the military sustainment footprint and resources to focus on higher priority operations requiring greater military sustainment involvement

94. Q. Para 73. What is Sustainment preparation of the operational environment?

A: Sustainment preparation of the operational environment is the analysis to determine infrastructure, physical environmental, and resources in the operational environment that will optimize or adversely impact friendly forces means for supporting and sustaining the commander’s operations plan

95. Q. Para 74. What is an Offensive Task?

A: offensive task is a task conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain, resources, and population centers

96. Q. Para 75. What is Defensive Task?

A: defensive task is conducted to defeat an enemy attack, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks

97. Q. Para 76. What are Stability Tasks?

A: Stability tasks are tasks conducted as part of operations outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief

98. Q. Para 78. What is Endurance?

A: the ability to employ combat power anywhere for protracted periods

99. Q. Para 78. How is Endurance achieved?

A: from the ability to maintain, protect, and sustain forces, regardless of how far away they are deployed, how austere the environment, or how long land power is required

100. Q. Para 79. What is the Army’s distribution system?

A: a complex of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store, maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military resources between point of receipt into the military system and point of issue to using activities and units

101. Q. Para 79. What is In-transit visibility?

A: In-transit visibility is the ability to track the identity, status, and location of DOD units, and non-unit cargo (excluding bulk petroleum, oils, and lubricants) and passengers; patients and personal property from origin to consignee, or destination across the range of military operations

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