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Rifle  Marksmanship M16/M4 series weapons, TC 3-22.9 May 2016


1. What publication covers Rifle Marksmanship M16/M4 Series Weapons?
A: TC 3-22.9 dated May 2016

2. What does TC 3-22.9 provide?
A: provides Soldiers with the critical information for their rifle or carbine and how it functions, its capabilities, the capabilities of the optics and ammunition, and the application of the functional elements of the shot process

3. What does Chapters 1-4 describe?
A: the weapon, aiming devices, mountable weapons, and accessories associated with the rifle and carbine

4. What does Chapters 5-9 provide?
A: provide the employment, stability, aiming, control and movement information. This portion focuses on the Solider skills needed to produce well aimed shots

5. What is TC 3-22.9 designed to provide Soldiers?
A. it is designed to provide Soldiers the critical information on their rifle or carbine to properly and effectively engage and destroy threats in a direct fire engagement


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6. Para 1-2 What are safe weapons handling procedures?
A. Safe weapons handling procedures are a consistent and standardized way for Soldiers to handle, operate, and employ the weapon safely and effectively

7. 1-2 What are the three components Weapons handling is built on?
A. 1. the Soldier
2. the weapon
3. the environment

8. 1-3 What are three distinct weapons handling measures Soldiers must be cognitively aware of?
A. 1. The rules of firearms safety.
2. Weapons safety status.
3. Weapons control status

9. 1-6 What are four rules of firearms safety?
A. 1. Treat Every Weapon as if it is Loaded
2. Never Point the Weapon at Anything You Do Not Intend to Destroy
3. Keep Finger Straight and Off the Trigger Until Ready to Fire
4. Ensure Positive Identification of the Target and its Surroundings

10. 1-7 How must every weapon be treated?
A. must be treated as if it is loaded and prepared to fire

11. 1-15 What are the weapon safety status of the M4 and m16 series weapons?
A. 1. Green, the weapon’s magazine is removed, its chamber is empty, its bolt is locked open or forward, and the selector is set to SAFE
2. Amber, A magazine is locked into the magazine well of the weapon, the bolt is forward on an EMPTY chamber, the ejection port cover should be CLOSED, and the selector should be set to SAFE
3. Red, The weapon’s magazine is inserted, a round is in the chamber, the bolt is forward and locked, the ejection port cover is closed, and the selector is set to SAFE

12. 1-22 What is weapons control status?
A. a tactical method of fire control given by a leader that incorporates the tactical situation, rules of engagement for the area of operations, and expected or anticipated enemy contact

13. 1-23 table 1-2 What are the weapons control status?
A. 1. Weapons hold, Engage only if engaged or ordered to engage
2. Weapons tight, Engage only if target is positively identified as enemy
3. Weapons free, Engage targets not positively identified as friendly

14. 1-25 What is overmatch?
A. Overmatch is the Soldier applying their learned skills, employing their equipment, leveraging technology, and applying the proper force to create an unfair fight in favor of the Soldier

15. 1-25 What are the attributes a Soldier has to achieve and maintain overmatch against any threat?
A. 1. Smart, the ability to routinely generate understanding through changing conditions
2. Fast, the ability to physically and cognitively outmaneuver adversaries
3. Lethal, deadly in the application of force
4. Precise, consistently accurate in the application of power to ensure deliver of the right effects in time, space, and purpose

16. 1-26 What is required by Soldiers for overmatch?
A. Overmatch requires the Soldier to understand the key elements that build the unfair advantage and exploit them at every opportunity during tactical operations

17. 1-26 What are the components of overmatch?
A. 1. Target detection, acquisition, and identification
2. Engagement range
3. Limited visibility
4. Precision
5. Speed
6. Terminal performance

18. 1-41 The proficiencies and skills displayed during training translate into what?
A. smart, fast, lethal and precise Soldiers for the small unit during decisive action combat operations

19. 2-1 What are the characteristics of the M16 series rifle or the M-4 series carbine?
A. a lightweight, 5.56-mm, magazine-fed, gas operated, air-cooled, shoulder-fired rifle or carbine

20. 2-3 What are the two major components of the M-16 and M-4?
A. the upper receiver and the lower receiver

21. 2-8 What is the Cycle of Function?
A. the mechanical process a weapon follows during operation

2-9 What are the phases of the cycle of function?
A. 1. Feeding
2. Chambering
3. Locking
4. Firing
5. Unlocking
6. Extracting
7. Ejecting
8. Cocking

23. 2-11 What is Feeding?
A. the process of mechanically providing a cartridge of ammunition to the entrance of the chamber

24. 2-12 What is Chambering?
A. the continuing action of the feeding round into the chamber of the weapon

25. 2-13 What is Locking?
A. Locking is the process of creating a mechanical grip between the bolt assembly and chamber with the appropriate amount of head space (clearance) for safe firing

26. 2-14 What is Firing?
A. Firing is the finite process of initiating the primer detonation of the cartridge and continues through shot-exit of the projectile from the muzzle

27. 2-15 What is Unlocking?
A. Unlocking is the process of releasing the locking lugs on the bolt face from the corresponding recesses on the barrel extension surrounding the chamber area

28. 2-16 What is Extracting?
A. Extracting is the removal of the expended cartridge case from the chamber by means of the extractor

29. 2-17 What is Ejecting?
A. Ejecting is the removal of the spent cartridge case from the weapon itself

30. 2-18 What is Cocking?
A. Cocking is the process of mechanically positioning the trigger assembly’s parts for firing

31. 2-19 What is Cooling?
A. Cooling is the process of dissipating heat from the weapon during firing

32. 2-22 What are three methods to reduce the thermal stress on a weapon for M4 and M16?
A. 1. Radiational cooling
2. Conduction cooling
3. Convection cooling

33. 3-1 What are some aiming devices used to align the Soldier, the weapon, and the target to make an accurate and precise shot?
A. 1. Iron
2. Optics
3. Thermal
4. Pointer/Illuminator/Laser

3-17 What are available optics for mounting on the M4- and M16-series modular weapon system?
A. 1. Iron Sight
2. Back Up Iron Sight (BUIS)
3. CCO, M68
4. RCO, M150

35. 3-24 What is the CCO Close Combat Optic, M68 designed for?
A. it is designed for the “eyes-open” method of sighting

36. 3-27 What are some advantages of the CCO?
A. 1. The CCO offers a distinct speed advantage over iron sights in most if not all engagements
2. The CCO is the preferred optic for close quarter’s engagements

37. 3-29 What is a disadvantage of the CCO?
A. 1. The CCO lacks a bullet drop compensator or other means to determine accurate range to target beyond 200m

38. 4-1 What are some items that could be mounted using the ARS Adaptive Rail System?
A. 1. Weapons
2. Aiming devices
3. Accessories

39. 4-6 What are the two types of weapons that can be physically attached to the M16 and M4 rifles?
A. Grenade launchers and shotguns

40. 5-0 What is a rifleman's primary role?
A. The rifleman’s primary role is to engage the enemy with well-aimed shots

41. 5-2 What are the two truths for a Soldier to place well-aimed shots?
A. 1. Properly point the weapon (sight alignment and sight picture)
    2. Fire the weapon without disturbing the aim

42. 5-3 What must a Soldier master to ensure well-aimed shots?
A. 1. sight alignment
2. sight picture
3. trigger control

43. 5-5 What are the three distinct phases of the shot process?
A. 1. Pre-shot
2. Shot
3. Post-shot

44. 5-11 What must a Soldier establish, maintain and sustain to place an accurate shot?
A. 1. Stability
2. Aim
3. Control
4. Movement

45. 5-17 What is target acquisition?
A. Target acquisition is the ability of a Soldier to rapidly recognize threats to the friendly unit or formation. It is a critical Soldier function before any shot process begins

46. 5-18 What are the things a Soldier must execute during the target acquisition process?
A. 1. Detect
2. Identify
3. Prioritize

47. 5-19 What are the skill sets for target detection for a Soldier?
A. 1. Scan and search
2. Acquire
3. Locate

48. 5-21 What are five basic search and scan techniques to detect potential threats in combat situations?
A. 1. Rapid scan
2. Slow scan
3. Horizontal scan
4. Vertical scan
5. Detailed search

49. 5-29 What are used for Fratricide prevention?
A. 1. Markings
2. Panels
3. Lighting
4. Beacons and Strobes
5. Symbols

50. 6-1 Stability is provided through what four functions?
A. 1. support
2. muscle relaxation
3. natural point of aim
4. recoil management

51. 6-12 What are six primary carry positions?
A. 1. Hang
2. Safe hang
3.Low ready
4. High ready
5. Ready (or ready-up)

6-31 What might a Soldier do to for a stabilization failure to occur?
A. 1. Control the movement of the barrel during the arc of movement
2. Adequately support the weapon system
3. Achieve their natural point of aim

53. 6-34 What are the primary firing positions?
A. 1. Standing
2. Squatting
3. Kneeling
4. Sitting
5. Prone

54. 7-13 What are some of the most common aiming errors?
A. 1. Non-dominant eye use
2. Incorrect zero
3. Battlefield obscurants
4. Incorrect sight alignment
5. Incorrect sight picture
6. Improper range determination

55. 7-15 What are some of the increased engagement difficulties?
A. 1. Target conditions
2. Environmental conditions
3. Shooter conditions

56. 7-15 What are some of the difficulties for Target conditions?
A. 1. Range to target
2. Moving targets
3. Oblique targets
4. Evasive targets
5. Limited exposure targets

57. 7-15 What are some of the difficulties for Environmental conditions?
A. 1. Wind
2. Angled firing
3. Limited visibility

58. 7-15 What are some of the difficulties for Shooter conditions?
A. 1. Moving firing position
2. Canted weapon engagements
3. CBRN operations engagements

59. 8-3 How does the Soldier physically maintain positive control of the shot process?
A. 1. Trigger control
2. Breathing control
3. Workspace
4. Calling the shot (firing or shot execution)
5. Follow-through

60. 8-17 What are the rates of fire?
A. 1. Slow semiautomatic fire
2. Rapid semiautomatic fire
3. Automatic or Burst fire

61. 8-26 What should a Soldier immediately do if a main weapon malfunctions?
A. 1. Can Secondary weapon can defeat the threat. Soldier transitions to secondary weapon for the engagement. If no secondary weapon is available, announce their status to the small team, and move to a covered position to correct the malfunction
2. Secondary weapon cannot defeat the threat. Soldiers quickly move to a covered position, announce their status to the small team, and execute corrective action.
3. No secondary weapon. Soldiers quickly move to a covered position, announce their status to the small team, and execute corrective action.

62. 8-29 What are the two general types of corrective action for a weapon malfunction?
A. 1. Immediate action – simple, rapid actions or motions taken by the Soldier to correct basic disruptions in the cycle of function of the weapon. Immediate action is taken when a malfunction occurs such that the trigger is squeeze and the hammer falls with an audible “click.”
2. Remedial action – a skilled, technique that must be applied to a specific problem or issue with the weapon that will not be corrected by taking immediate action. Remedial action is taken when the cycle of function is interrupted where the trigger is squeezed and either has little resistance during the squeeze (“mush”) or the trigger cannot be squeezed

63. 8-31 What type of malfunction can immediate action correct?
A. 1. Failure to fire
2. Failure to feed
3. Failure to chamber
4. Failure to extract
5. Failure to eject

64. 8-32 What type of malfunction is remedial action required to correct?
A. 1. Immediate action fails to correct symptom
2. Stove pipe
3. Double feed
4. Bolt override
5. Charging handle impingement

65. 8-33 What must a Soldier do when thy have a malfunction during a combat situation?
A. the Soldier must announce STOPPAGE or another similar term to their small unit, quickly move to a covered location, and correct the malfunction as rapidly as possible

66. 8-35 How do you perform immediate action?
A. 1. Hears the hammer fall with an audible “click.”
2. Taps the bottom of the magazine firmly.
3. Rapidly pulls the charging handle and releases to extract / eject the previous cartridge and feed, chamber, and lock a new round
4. Reassess by continuing the shot process

67. 8-36 What are the conditions that a Soldier should perform remedial action?
A. 1. Immediate action does not work after two attempts
2. The trigger refuses to be squeezed
3. The trigger feels like “mush” when squeezed

68. 8-37 What should the Soldier do if the weapon needs remedial action?
A. the Soldier looks into the chamber area through the ejection port to quickly assess the type of malfunction. Once identified, the Soldier executes actions to “reduce” the symptom by removing the magazine and attempting to clear the weapon. Once complete, visually inspect the chamber area, bolt face, and charging handle. Then, complete the actions for the identified symptom

69. 8-37 What are the three reasons for remedial action?
A. 1. Stove pipe
2. Double feed
3. Bolt override

70. 8-37 How do you perform Stove pipe remedial action?
A. Grasp case and attempt to remove, cycle weapon and attempt to fire. If this fails, pull charging handle to the rear while holding case

71. 8-37 How do you perform Double feed remedial action?
A. the Soldier must remove the magazine, clear the weapon, confirm the chamber area is clear, secure a new loaded magazine into the magazine well, and chamber and lock a round

72. 8-37 How do you perform Bolt override remedial action?
A. Remove magazine. Pull charging handle as far rearward as possible. Strike charging handle forward. If this fails, pull charging handle to the rear a second time, use tool or finger to hold the bolt to the rear, sharply send charging handle forward