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Map Reading and Land Navigation, TC 3-25.26 & FM 3-25.26
1. What Publication Covers Map Reading and Land Navigation?
A: TC 3-25.26 15 Nov 2013
2. What does TC 3-25.26 Cover?
A: Map Reading Land Navigation
3. Para 2-0 What is the definition of Cartography?
A: the art and science of expressing the known physical features of the earth graphically by maps and charts
4. Para 2-1 What is the definition of a map?
A: a graphic representation of a portion of the earth's surface drawn to scale, as seen from above
5. Para 2-2 What does a map provide?
A: information on the existence, the location of, and the distance between ground features, such as populated places and routes of travel and communication; It also indicates variations in terrain, heights of natural features, and the extent of vegetation cover
6. Para 2-3 Who is responsible for securing maps for the unit?
A: The G2/S2 section
7. Para 2-4 What should you do with a map that is in danger of being captured?
A: Destroy it
8. Para 2-4 Why should you destroy a map that is in danger of being captured?
A: Because it could contain troop movements or positions of friendly soldiers
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9. Para 2-6 How many different sizes of maps are there?
10. Para 2-6 What are the different map sizes?
A: 1. Small; Those maps with scales of 1:1,000,000
2. Medium; Those maps with scales larger than 1:1,000,000 but smaller than 1:75,000
3. Large; Those maps with scales of 1:75,000 and larger
11. Para 2-6 How many different types of maps are there?
12. Para 2-6 What are the Different Types of Maps?
A: 1. Planimetric Map
2. Topographic Map
4. Joint Operations Graphics
6. Terrain Model
7. Military City Map
8. Special Maps
13. Para 2-6 What is a Planimetric Map?
A: map that presents only the horizontal positions for the features represented
14. Para 2-6 What is a Topographic Map?
A: a map that portrays terrain features in a measurable way (usually through use of contour lines), as well as the horizontal positions of the features represented
15. Para 2-6 What is a Photomap?
A: a reproduction of an aerial photograph upon which grid lines, marginal data, place names, route numbers, important elevations, boundaries, and approximate scale and direction have been added
16. Para 2-6 What is a Joint Operations Graphics?
A: maps based on the format of standard 1:250,000 medium-scale military topographic maps, but they contain additional information needed in joint air-ground operations
17. Para 2-6 What is a Photomosaic?
A: an assembly of aerial photographs that is commonly called a mosaic in topographic usage
18. Para 2-6 What is a Terrain Model?
A: a scale model of the terrain showing features, and in large-scale models showing industrial and cultural shapes
19. Para 2-6 What is a Military City Map?
A: a topographic map (usually at 1:12,550 scale, sometimes up to 1:5,000), showing the details of a city
20. Para 2-6 What is are Special Maps?
A: These are maps for special purposes, such as trafficability, communications, and assault maps
21. Para 2-7 What should you use if Military Maps are not available?
A: Substitute maps
22. Para 2-7 What can Substitute maps range from?
A: substitute maps can range from foreign military or commercial maps to field sketches
23. Para 2-7 How many types of Substitute maps are there?
24. Para 2-7 What are the Seven different types of Substitute Maps?
A: 1. Foreign Maps
3. Geographic Maps
4. Tourist Road Maps
5. City/Utility Maps
6. Field Sketches
7. Aerial Photographs
25. Para 2-7 What are Foreign Maps?
A: maps that have been compiled by nations other than our own. When these must be used, the marginal information and grids are changed to conform to our standards if time permits
26. Para 2-7 What are Atlases?
A: collections of maps of regions, countries, continents, or the world. Such maps are accurate only to a degree and can be used for general information only
27. Para 2-7 What are Geographic Maps?
A: maps give an overall idea of the mapped area in relation to climate, population, relief, vegetation, and hydrography
28. Para 2-7 What are Tourist Road Maps?
A: maps of a region in which the main means of transportation and areas of interest are shown
29. Para 2-7 What are City/Utility Maps?
A: maps of urban areas showing streets, water ducts, electricity and telephone lines, and sewers
30. Para 2-7 What are Field Sketches?
A: preliminary drawings of an area or piece of terrain
31. Para 2-7 What are Aerial Photographs?
A: can be used as map supplements or substitutes to help you analyze the terrain, plan your route, or guide your movement
32. Para 3-1 Where would you find useful information that will help you read a map?
A: in the Marginal Information
33. Para 3-1 Where will you find information about the symbols found on a map?
A: in the Marginal Information
34. Para 3-1 What should a Soldier do prior to using a particular map?
A: the Soldier must read the instructions
35. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Sheet Name of a Map?
A: The sheet name is found in bold print at the center of the top and in the lower left area of the map margin
36. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Sheet Number of a Map?
A: The sheet number is found in bold print in both the upper right and lower left areas of the margin, and in the center box of the adjoining sheets diagram, which is found in the lower right margin
37. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Series Name of a Map?
A: The map series name is found in the same bold print as the sheet number in the upper left corner of the margin
38. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Scale of a Map and what does it represent?
A: The scale is found both in the upper left margin after the series name, and in the center of the lower margin and it is a representative fraction that gives the ratio of a map distance to the corresponding distance on the earth's surface
39. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Series Number of a Map?
A: The series number is found in both the upper right margin and the lower left margin
40. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Edition Number of a Map?
A: The edition number is found in bold print in the upper right area of the top margin and the lower left area of the bottom margin
41. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Index to Boundaries of a Map and what does it represent?
A: The index to boundaries diagram appears in the lower or right margin of all sheets and which is a miniature of the map, shows the boundaries that occur within the map area, such as county lines and state boundaries
42. Para 3-1 What is the Adjoining Sheets Diagram of a Map and what does it represent?
A: It consists of as many rectangles representing adjoining sheets as are necessary to surround the rectangle that represents the sheet under consideration
43. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Elevation Guide of a Map and what does it represent?
A: This is normally found in the lower right margin and It is a miniature characterization of the terrain shown
44. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Declination Diagram of a Map and what does it represent?
A: This is located in the lower margin of large-scale maps and indicates the angular relationships of true north, grid north, and magnetic north
45. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Bar Scales of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin and They are rulers used to convert map distance to ground distance. Maps have three or more bar scales, each in a different unit of measure
46. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Contour Interval Note of a Map Map and what does it represent?
A: found in the center of the lower margin normally below the bar scales. It states the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines of the map
47. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Spheroid Note of a Map Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin. Spheriods (ellipsoids) have specific parameters that define the X Y Z axis of the earth
48. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Grid Note of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin. It gives information pertaining to the grid system used and the interval between grid lines, and it identifies the UTM grid zone number
49. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Projection Note of a Map?
A: located in the center of the lower margin
50. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Vertical Datum Note of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin and The vertical datum or vertical-control datum is defined as any level surface (for example, mean sea level) taken as a surface of reference from which to determine elevations
51. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Horizontal Datum Note of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin and The horizontal datum or horizontal-control datum is defined as a geodetic reference point
52. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Control Note of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin and It indicates the special agencies involved in the control of the technical aspects of all the information that is disseminated on the map
53. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Preparation Note of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin and It indicates the agency responsible for preparing the map
54. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Printing Note of a Map and what does it represent?
A: located in the center of the lower margin and it indicates the agency responsible for printing the map and the date the map was printed
55. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Grid Reference Box of a Map and what does it represent?
A: normally located in the center of the lower margin and It contains instructions for composing a grid reference
56. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Unit imprint and Symbol of a Map and what does it represent?
A: The unit imprint and symbol is on the left side of the lower margin and It identifies the agency that prepared and printed the map with its respective symbol
57. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Legend of a Map and what does it represent?
A: lower left margin and It illustrates and identifies the topographic symbols used to depict some of the more prominent features on the map
58. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Legend of a Map?
A: lower left margin
59. Para 3-4 What are topographic symbols used to represent?
A: the natural and man-made features of the earth, military personnel require some method for showing identity, size, location, or movement of soldiers; and military activities and installations
60. Para 3-5 What are the Colors of a Military Map and What do they Represent?
A: 1. Black. Indicates cultural (man-made) features such as buildings and roads, surveyed spot elevations, and all labels.
2. Red-Brown. The colors red and brown are combined to identify cultural features, all relief features, nonsurveyed spot elevations, and elevation, such as contour lines on red-light readable maps
3. Blue. Identifies hydrography or water features such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage
4. Green. Identifies vegetation with military significance, such as woods, orchards, and vineyards
5. Brown. Identifies all relief features and elevation, such as contours on older edition maps, and cultivated land on red-light readable maps
6. Red. Classifies cultural features, such as populated areas, main roads, and boundaries, on older maps
61. Para 3-5 How many Different Colors are found on a Military Map?
62. Para 4-2 Which direction do Lines of latitude run?
A: Lines of latitude run east-west but north-south distances are measured between them
63. Para 4-2 What are The rings around the earth parallel to the equator?
A: latitude lines
64. Para 4-2 What Lines Run North and South?
A: Longitude Lines and East and West distances are measured between them
65. Para 4-2 What Lines Run East and West?
A: Lines of latitude
66. Para 4-2 How do you read a map with a Protractor to determine a Grid?
A: Right and Up
67. Para 4-3 What is the Universal Transverse Mercator Grid?
A: The UTM grid has been designed to cover that part of the world between latitude 84° N and latitude 80° S, and, as its name implies, is imposed on the transverse Mercator projection
68. Para 4-3 What UTM Stand for?
A: Universal Transverse Mercator Grid
69. Para 4-3 How are Distances are always measured?
A: Distances are always measured RIGHT and UP
70. Para 4-4 How many Grids is the world is divided?
A: 60 grid zones
71. Para 4-4 How close will a six digit grid be to a location?
A: within 100 meters
72. Para 4-4 How close will an eight digit grid be to a location?
A: within 10 meters
73. Para 4-4 How close will a four digit grid be to a location?
A: within 1,000 meters
74. Para 5-2 What does the graphic Bar Scale do?
A: A graphic scale is a ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distances on the map to actual ground distances
75. Para 6-1 How many units of measurement are used for Direction?
76. Para 6-1 What are the units of measurement are used for Direction?
A: 1. Degree. The most common unit of measure is the degree
2. Mil. Another unit of measure, the mil (abbreviated ), is used mainly in artillery, tank, and mortar gunnery
3. Grad. The grad is a metric unit of measure found on some foreign maps
77. Para 6-2 How many Base Lines on a Military Map?
A: There are three base lines— true north, magnetic north, and grid north
78. Para 6-2 How many Norths are on a Military Map?
A: Three; true north, magnetic north, and grid north
79. Para 6-2 What are the most common Norths used on a Military Map?
A: The most commonly used are magnetic and grid
80. Para 6-2 What is True North?
A: A line from any point on the earth's surface to the north pole. All lines of longitude are true north lines. True north is
usually represented by a star
81. Para 6-2 What is Magnetic North?
A: The direction to the north magnetic pole, as indicated by the north-seeking needle of a magnetic instrument. The magnetic north is usually symbolized by a line ending with half of an arrowhead
82. Para 6-2 What is Grid North?
A: The north that is established by using the vertical grid lines on the map. Grid north may be symbolized by the letters GN or the letter "y"
83. Para 6-2 What is an Azimuth?
A: An azimuth is defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line; the azimuth is the most common military method to express direction
84. Para 6-2 What is an Back Azimuth?
A: A back azimuth is the opposite direction of an azimuth. It is comparable to doing "about face."
85. Para 6-2 How do you Obtain a Back Azimuth?
A: To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth, add 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or less, or subtract 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or more
86. Para 6-2 What is a Magnetic Azimuth?
A: The magnetic azimuth is determined by using magnetic instruments, such as lensatic and M2 compasses
87. Para 6-4 What is a Grid Azimuth?
A: A protractor is used to measure the angle between grid north and the drawn line, and this measured azimuth is the grid azimuth
88. Para 6-5 How many different Protractors are there?
89. Para 6-5 What are the different Protractors?
A: 1. Full Circle
2. Half Circle
90. Para 6-6 What does the Declination Diagram display?
A: shows the angular relationship, represented by prongs, among grid, magnetic, and true norths
91. Para 6-6 What is the Grid-Magnetic Angle?
A: The G-M angle value is the angular size that exists between grid north and magnetic north
92. Para 6-6 What is the Grid Convergence?
A: An arc indicated by a dashed line connects the prongs for true north and grid north. The value of the angle for the center of the sheet is given to the nearest full minute with its equivalent to the nearest mil
93. Para 6-6 What is the Conversion?
A: There is an angular difference between the grid north and the magnetic north. Since the location of magnetic north does not correspond exactly with the grid-north lines on the maps, a conversion from magnetic to grid or vice versa is needed
94. Para 6-7 What is the Intersection?
A: Intersection is the location of an unknown point by successively occupying at least two (preferably three) known positions on the ground and then map sighting on the unknown location
95. Para 6-7 What is the two methods for Intersection?
A: two methods of intersection: the map and compass method and the straightedge method
96. Para 6-7 When is the Straightedge methods for Intersection used?
A: The straight edge method is used when a compass is not available
97. Para 6-8 What is Resection?
A: Resection is the method of locating one's position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least two well defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map
98. Para 6-8 When using Resection what method can give you greater Accuracy?
A: For greater accuracy, the desired method of resection would be to use three or more well-defined locations
99. Para 6-8 What is Modified resection?
A: Modified resection is the method of locating one's position on the map when the person is located on a linear feature on the ground, such as a road, canal, or stream
100. Para 6-8 What are the ways to determine your Location on a Map?
A: 1. Intersection
3. Modified resection
101. Para 6-7 How do you Determine your location using Intersection when using the map and compass method?
A: (1) Orient the map using the compass.
(2) Locate and mark your position on the map,
(3) Determine the magnetic azimuth to the unknown position using the compass.
(4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to grid azimuth.
(5) Draw a line on the map from your position on this grid azimuth.
(6) Move to a second known point and repeat steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.
(7) The location of the unknown position is where the lines cross on the map. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.
102. Para 6-7 How do you Determine your location using Intersection when straight edge method is used when a compass is not available?
A: (1) Orient the map on a flat surface by the terrain association method.
(2) Locate and mark your position on the map.
(3) Lay a straight edge on the map with one end at the user’s position (A) as a pivot point; then, rotate the straightedge until the unkown point is sighted along the edge.
(4) Draw a line along the straight edge
(5) Repeat the above steps at position (B) and check for accuracy.
(6) The intersection of the lines on the map is the location of the unknown point (C). Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy
103. Para 6-8 How do you Determine your location using Resection when using the map and compass method?
A: (1) Orient the map using the compass.
(2) Identify two or three known distant locations on the ground and mark them on the map.
(3) Measure the magnetic azimuth to one of the known positions from your location using a compass.
(4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth.
(5) Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth. Using a protractor, draw a line for the back azimuth on the map from the known position back toward your unknown position.
(6) Repeat 3, 4, and 5 for a second position and a third position, if desired.
(7) The intersection of the lines is your location. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy
104. Para 6-8 How do you Determine your location using Resection when using the straightedge method?
A: (1) Orient the map on a flat surface by the terrain association method.
(2) Locate at least two known distant locations or prominent features on the ground and mark them on the map.
(3) Lay a straightedge on the map using a known position as a pivot point. Rotate the straightedge until the known position on the map is aligned with the known position on the ground.
(4) Draw a line along the straightedge away from the known position on the ground toward your position.
(5) Repeat 3 and 4 using a second known position.
(6) The intersection of the lines on the map is your location. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.
105. Para 6-9 How do you Determine your location using the Modified Resection?
A: 1. Orient the map using a compass or by terrain association.
2. Find a distant point that can be identified on the ground and on the map.
3. Determine the magnetic azimuth from your location to the distant known point.
4. Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth.
5. Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth. Using a protractor, draw a line for the back azimuth on the map from the known position back toward your unknown position.
6. The location of the user is where the line crosses the linear feature. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.
106. Para 8-2 What are the two major types of Aerial Photography?
A: the vertical and the oblique
107. Para 8-2 What is Vertical Photography?
A: A vertical photograph is taken with the camera pointed as straight down as possible
108. Para 8-2 What the two types of Oblique Photography?
A: The Low Oblique and the High Oblique
109. Para 8-2 What is Low Oblique Photography?
A: This is a photograph taken with the camera inclined about 30° from the vertical
110. Para 8-2 What is High Oblique Photography?
A: The high oblique is a photograph taken with the camera inclined about 60° from the vertical
111. Para 8-2 What is a Trimetrogon?
A: This is an assemblage of three photographs taken at the same time, one vertical and two high obliques, in a direction at right angle to the line of flight
112. Para 9-1 What is the most common and simplest instrument for measuring direction?
A: The lensatic compass
113. Para 9-1 What are the four different types of compasses used for measuring direction?
A: 1. The lensatic compass
2. The artillery M2 compass
3. The wrist/pocket compass
4. A protractor
114. Para 9-1 What is the The artillery M2 compass?
A: The artillery M2 compass is a special-purpose instrument designed for accuracy
115. Para 9-1 What is the wrist/pocket compass?
A: The wrist/pocket compass is a small magnetic compass that can be attached to a wristwatch band. It contains a north-seeking arrow and a dial in degrees
116. Para 9-2 What are the three major parts of the Lensatic Compass?
A: 1. Cover
117. Para 9-2 Describe the Purpose of the Cover of the Lensatic Compass?
A: The compass cover protects the floating dial. It contains the sighting wire (front sight) and two luminous sighting slots or dots used for night navigation.
118. Para 9-2 What does the Base of the Lensatic Compass Contain?
A: (1) The floating dial is mounted on a pivot so it can rotate freely when the compass is held level. Printed on the dial in luminous figures are an arrow and the letters E and W. The arrow always points to magnetic north and the letters fall at east (E) 90° and west (W) 270° on the dial. There are two scales; the outer scale denotes mils and the inner scale (normally in red) denotes degrees.
(2) Encasing the floating dial is a glass containing a fixed black index line.
(3) The bezel ring is a ratchet device that clicks when turned. It contains 120 clicks when rotated fully; each click is equal to 3°. A short luminous line that is used in conjunction with the north-seeking arrow during navigation is contained in the glass face of the bezel ring.
(4) The thumb loop is attached to the base of the compass
119. Para 9-2 What does the Lens of the Lensatic Compass Contain?
A: The lens is used to read the dial, and it contains the rear-sight slot used in conjunction with the front for sighting on objects. The rear sight also serves as a lock and clamps the dial when closed for its protection. The rear sight must be opened more than 45° to allow the dial to float freely.
120. Para 9-4 What two techniques for using the Lensatic Compass?
A: 1. the Centerhold Technique
2. the Compass-to-Cheek Technique
121. Para 9-4 How do you use the Centerhold Technique?
A: First, open the compass to its fullest so that the cover forms a straightedge with the base. Move the lens (rear sight) to the rearmost position, allowing the dial to float freely. Next, place your thumb through the thumb loop, form a steady base with your third and fourth fingers, and extend your index finger along
the side of the compass. Place the thumb of the other hand between the lens (rear sight) and the bezel ring; extend the index finger along the remaining
side of the compass, and the remaining fingers around the fingers of the other hand. Pull your elbows firmly into your sides; this will place the compass between your chin and your belt
122. Para 9-4 What are the Advantages of using the Centerhold Technique?
A: (1) It is faster and easier to use.
(2) It can be used under all conditions of visibility.
(3) It can be used when navigating over any type of terrain.
(4) It can be used without putting down the rifle; however, the rifle must be slung well back over either shoulder.
(5) It can be used without removing eyeglasses
123. Para 9-4 How do you use the Compass-to-Cheek Technique?
A: Fold the cover of the compass containing the sighting wire to a vertical position; then fold the rear sight slightly forward. Look through the rear-sight slot and align the frontsight hairline with the desired object in the distance. Then glance down at the dial through the eye lens to read the azimuth
124. Para 9-4 When is the Compass-to-Cheek Technique normally used?
A: For Sighting
125. Para 9-5 When are the Field Expedient Methods to determine the four Cardinal Directions?
A: 1. Shadow-Tip Method
2. Watch Method
3. Star Method
126. Para 9-6 What does GPS Stand for?
A: Global Positioning System
127. Para 9-6 What is GPS?
A: The GPS is a space-based, global, all-weather, continuously available, radio positioning navigation system
128. Para 9-6 What is the benefit of using a GPS?
A: It is highly accurate in determining position location derived from signal triangulation from a satellite constellation system. It is capable of
determining latitude, longitude, and altitude of the individual user
129. Para 10-1 What are reference or start point for vertical measurement of elevation on a standard military map?
A: the datum plane or mean sea level
130. Para 10-1 What is Elevation?
A: Elevation of a point on the earth’s surface is the vertical distance it is above or below mean sea level
131. Para 10-1 What is Relief?
A: Relief is the representation (as depicted by the mapmaker) of the shapes of hills, valleys, streams, or terrain features on the earth's surface
132. Para 10-1 What is the most common method of showing relief and elevation on a standard topographic map?
A: Contour lines are the most common method of showing relief and elevation on a standard topographic map
133. Para 10-1 What are Contour Lines and what do they represent on a Map?
A: A contour line represents an imaginary line on the ground, above or below sea level
134. Para 10-1 What are the three different types of Contour?
A: 1. Index
135. Para 10-4 What are the three different types of Slopes?
A: 1. Gentle
136. Para 10-6 What are the Five Major Terrain Features?
A: 1. Hill
137. Para 10-6 What are the Three Minor Terrain Features?
A: 1. Draw
138. Para 10-6 What are the Supplimentary Terrain Features?
A: 1. Cut
139. Para 11-1 What 1st Step to Navigation?
A: Orienting the Map
140. Para 11-1 When is a Map Orientated?
A: A map is oriented when it is in a horizontal position with its north and south corresponding to the north and south on the ground
141. Para 11-1 What are the different ways to Orient a Map?
1. Using a Compass
2. Using Terrain Association
3. Using Field-Expedient Methods
142. Para 11-14 What does the Acronym OCOKA stand for?
A: 1. Observation and Fields of Fire
2. Cover and Concealment
4. Key Terrain
5. Avenues of Approach
143. Para 11-6 What are the Navigation Methods?
A: 1. Dead Reckoning
2. Moving by Terrain Association
3. Combination of Techniques