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Map Reading and Land Navigation, TC 3-25.26 & FM 3-25.26 
1. What publication covers Map Reading and Land Navigation?
A: TC 3-25.26.


2. What does TC 3-25.26 cover?
A: Map Reading Land Navigation.

3. Para 2-0  What is the definition of Cartography?
A: the art and science of expressing the known physical features of the earth graphically by maps and charts.

4. Para 2-1 What is the definition of a map?
A: a graphic representation of a portion of the earth's surface drawn to scale, as seen from above.

5. Para 2-2 What does a map provide?
A: information on the existence, the location of, and the distance between ground features. 

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TC 3-25.26 (formerly FM 3-25.26). Land Navigation and Map Reading.  This is the most up to date Army study guide on the internet.  

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6. Para 2-3 Who is responsible for securing maps for the unit?
A: The G2/S2 section.

7. Para 2-4 What should you do with a map that is in danger of being captured?
A: Destroy it.

8. Para 2-4 Why should you destroy a map that is in danger of being captured?
A: Because it could contain troop movements or positions of friendly soldiers.

9. Para 2-6 How many different sizes of maps are there?

A: three.

 

10. Para 2-6 What are the different map sizes?

A: 1. Small.

2. Medium.

3. Large.

 

11. Para 2-6 How many different types of maps are there?

A: Eight.

 

12. Para 2-6 What are the different types of maps?

A: 1. Planimetric Map.

2. Topographic Map.

3. Photomap.

4. Joint Operations Graphics.

5. Photomosaic.

6. Terrain Model.

7. Military City Map.

8. Special Maps.

 

13. Para 2-6 What is a planimetric map?

A: map that presents only the horizontal positions for the features represented.

 

14. Para 2-6 What is a topographic map?

A: a map that portrays terrain features in a measurable way , as well as the horizontal positions of the features represented.

 

15. Para 2-6 What is a photomap?

A: a reproduction of an aerial photograph upon which grid lines, marginal data, place names, route numbers, important elevations, boundaries, and approximate scale and direction have been added

 

16. Para 2-6 What is a joint operations graphics?

A: maps based on the format of medium-scale military topographic maps, but they contain additional information needed in joint air-ground operations

 

17. Para 2-6 What is a photomosaic?

A: an assembly of aerial photographs that is commonly called a mosaic in topographic usage

 

18. Para 2-6 What is a terrain model?

A: a scale model of the terrain showing features, and in large-scale models showing industrial and cultural shapes

 

19. Para 2-6 What is a military city map?

A: a topographic map showing the details of a city

 

20. Para 2-6 What is are special maps?

A: These are maps for special purposes, such as trafficability, communications, and assault maps

 

21. Para 2-7 What should you use if military maps are not available?

A: Substitute maps

 

22. Para 2-7 What can substitute maps range from?

A: substitute maps can range from foreign military or commercial maps to field sketches

 

23. Para 2-7 How many types of substitute maps are there?

A: Seven

 

24. Para 2-7 What are the seven different types of substitute maps?

A: 1. Foreign Maps

2. Atlases

3. Geographic Maps

4. Tourist Road Maps

5. City/Utility Maps

6. Field Sketches

7. Aerial Photographs

 

25. Para 2-7 What are foreign maps?

A: maps that have been compiled by nations other than our own. 

 

26. Para 2-7 What are atlases?

A: collections of maps of regions, countries, continents, or the world. 

 

27. Para 2-7 What are geographic maps?

A: maps give an overall idea of the mapped area in relation to climate, population, relief, vegetation, and hydrography

 

28. Para 2-7 What are tourist road maps?

A: maps of a region in which the main means of transportation and areas of interest are shown

 

29. Para 2-7 What are city/utility maps?

A: maps of urban areas showing streets, water ducts, electricity and telephone lines, and sewers

 

30. Para 2-7 What are field sketches?

A: preliminary drawings of an area or piece of terrain

 

31. Para 2-7 What are aerial photographs?

A: map to help you analyze the terrain, plan your route, or guide your movement

 

32. Para 3-1 Where would you find useful information that will help you read a map?

A: in the Marginal Information

 

33. Para 3-1 Where will you find information about the symbols found on a map?

A: in the Marginal Information

 

34. Para 3-1 What should a Soldier do prior to using a particular map?

A: the Soldier must read the instructions

 

35. Para 3-1 Where will you find the sheet name of a map?

A: The sheet name is found in bold print at the center of the top and in the lower left area of the map margin

 

36. Para 3-1 Where will you find the sheet number of a map?

A: The sheet number is found in bold print in both the upper right and lower left areas of the margin., 

 

37. Para 3-1 Where will you find the series name of a map?

A: The map series name is found in the same bold print as the sheet number in the upper left corner of the margin

 

38. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Scale of a map and what does it represent?

A: The scale is found both in the upper left margin. 

 

39. Para 3-1 Where will you find the series number of a map?

A: The series number is found in both the upper right margin and the lower left margin

 

40. Para 3-1 Where will you find the edition number of a map?

A: in bold print in the upper right area of the top margin and the lower left area of the bottom margin.

 

41. Para 3-1 Where will you find the Index to boundaries of a map and what does it represent?

A: in the lower or right margin of all sheets. 

 

42. Para 3-1 What is the adjoining sheets diagram of a map and what does it represent?

A: It consists of as many rectangles representing adjoining sheets, it represents the sheet under consideration.

 

43. Para 3-1 Where will you find the elevation guide of a map and what does it represent?

A: This is normally found in the lower right margin and It is a miniature characterization of the terrain shown

 

44. Para 3-1 Where will you find the declination diagram of a map and what does it represent?

A: This is located in the lower margin of large-scale maps.

 

45. Para 3-1 Where will you find the bar scales of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin. 

 

46. Para 3-1 Where will you find the contour interval note of a map and what does it represent?

A: found in the center of the lower margin normally below the bar scales. It states the vertical distance between adjacent contour lines of the map.

 

47. Para 3-1 Where will you find the spheroid note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin. Spheriods (ellipsoids) have specific parameters that define the X Y Z axis of the earth.

 

48. Para 3-1 Where will you find the grid note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin. It gives information pertaining to the grid system used and the interval between grid lines, and it identifies the UTM grid zone number.

 

49. Para 3-1 Where will you find the projection note of a map?

A: located in the center of the lower margin.

 

50. Para 3-1 Where will you find the vertical datum note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin and represents any level surface taken as a surface of reference from which to determine elevations.

 

51. Para 3-1 Where will you find the horizontal datum note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin and it is defined as a geodetic reference point.

 

52. Para 3-1 Where will you find the control note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin and It indicates the special agencies involved in the control of the technical aspects. 

 

53. Para 3-1 Where will you find the preparation note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin and It indicates the agency responsible for preparing the map.

 

54. Para 3-1 Where will you find the printing note of a map and what does it represent?

A: located in the center of the lower margin and it indicates the agency responsible for printing the map and the date the map was printed.

 

55. Para 3-1 Where will you find the grid reference box of a map and what does it represent?

A: normally located in the center of the lower margin and It contains instructions for composing a grid reference.

 

56. Para 3-1 Where will you find the unit imprint and symbol of a map and what does it represent?

A: The unit imprint and symbol is on the left side of the lower margin and It identifies the agency that prepared and printed the map with its respective symbol.

 

57. Para 3-1 Where will you find the legend of a map and what does it represent?

A: lower left margin and It illustrates and identifies the topographic symbols used to depict some of the more prominent features on the map.

 

58. Para 3-1 Where will you find the legend of a map?

A: Lower left margin. 

 

59. Para 3-4 What are topographic symbols used to represent?

A: the natural and man-made features of the earth, military personnel require some method for showing identity, size, location, or movement of soldiers; and military activities and installations.

 

60. Para 3-5 What are the colors of a Military map and What do they represent?

A: 1. Black. man made.

2. Red-Brown. nonsurveyed spot elevations, and elevation, such as contour lines.

3. Blue. water such as lakes, swamps, rivers, and drainage.

4. Green. vegetation with military significance, such as woods, orchards, and vineyards.

5. Brown. relief features and elevation and cultivated land.

6. Red. populated areas, main roads, and boundaries.

 

61. Para 3-5 How many different colors are found on a Military map?

A: Six.

 

62. Para 4-2 Which direction do lines of latitude run?
A: Lines of latitude run east-west but north-south distances are measured between them.

 

63. Para 4-2 What are the rings around the earth parallel to the equator?

A: latitude lines.

 

64. Para 4-2 What lines run north and south?

A: Longitude Lines and East and West distances are measured between them.

 

65. Para 4-2 What lines run east and west?

A: Lines of latitude.

 

66. Para 4-2 How do you read a map with a protractor to determine a grid?

A: Right and Up.

 

67. Para 4-3 What is the universal transverse mercator grid?

A: The UTM grid has been designed to cover that part of the world between latitude 84° N and latitude 80° S, and, as its name implies, is imposed on the transverse Mercator projection.

 

68. Para 4-3 What does UTM stand for?

A: Universal Transverse Mercator Grid.

 

69. Para 4-3 How are distances are always measured?

A: Distances are always measured RIGHT and UP.

 

70. Para 4-4 How many grids is the world divided into?

A: 60 grid zones.

 

71. Para 4-4 How close will a six digit grid be to a location?

A: within 100 meters.

 

72. Para 4-4 How close will an eight digit grid be to a location?

A: within 10 meters.

 

73. Para 4-4 How close will a four digit grid be to a location?

A: within 1,000 meters.

 

74. Para 5-2 What does the graphic bar scale do?

A: A graphic scale is a ruler printed on the map and is used to convert distances on the map to actual ground distances.

 

75. Para 6-1 How many units of measurement are used for direction?

A: Three.

 

76. Para 6-1 What are the units of measurement are used for direction?

A: 1. Degree. 

2. Mil. 

3. Grad. 

  

77. Para 6-2 How many base lines on a Military map?

A: There are three base lines— true north, magnetic north, and grid north.

 

78. Para 6-2 How many Norths are on a Military map?

A: Three; true north, magnetic north, and grid north.

 

79. Para 6-2 What are the most common Norths used on a Military map?

A: The most commonly used are magnetic and grid.

 

80. Para 6-2 What is True North?

A: A line from any point on the earth's surface to the north pole. All lines of longitude are true north lines.


81. Para 6-2 What is Magnetic North?

A: The direction to the north magnetic pole, as indicated by the north-seeking needle of a magnetic instrument.

 

82. Para 6-2 What is Grid North?

A: The north that is established by using the vertical grid lines on the map. 

 

83. Para 6-2 What is an Azimuth?

A: An azimuth is defined as a horizontal angle measured clockwise from a north base line.

 

84. Para 6-2 What is an back Azimuth?

A: A back azimuth is the opposite direction of an azimuth.


85. Para 6-2 How do you obtain a back Azimuth?

A: To obtain a back azimuth from an azimuth, add 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or less, or subtract 180 degrees if the azimuth is 180 degrees or more.

 

86. Para 6-2 What is a Magnetic Azimuth?

A: The magnetic azimuth is determined by using magnetic instruments, such as lensatic and M2 compasses.

 

87. Para 6-4 What is a Grid Azimuth?

A: A protractor is used to  measure the angle between grid north and the drawn line, and this measured azimuth is the grid azimuth.

 

88. Para 6-5 How many different protractors are there?

A: Four.

 

89. Para 6-5 What are the different protractors?

A: 1. Full Circle.

2. Half Circle.

3. Square.

4. Rectangle.

 

90. Para 6-6 What does the declination diagram display?

A: shows the angular relationship, represented by prongs, among grid, magnetic, and true norths.

 

91. Para 6-6 What is the Grid-Magnetic angle?

A: The G-M angle value is the angular size that exists between grid north and magnetic north.

 

92. Para 6-6 What is the Grid convergence?

A: An arc indicated by a dashed line connects the prongs for true north and grid north. 

 

93. Para 6-6 What is the Conversion?

A: There is an angular difference between the grid north and the magnetic north. 

 

94. Para 6-7 What is the Intersection?

A: Intersection is the location of an unknown point by successively occupying at least two (preferably three) known positions on the ground and then map sighting on the unknown location.

 

95. Para 6-7 What are the two methods for intersection?

A: the two methods of intersection are the map and compass method, and the straightedge method.

 

96. Para 6-7 When is the Straightedge methods for intersection used?
A: The straight edge method is used when a compass is not available.

 

97. Para 6-8 What is Resection?

A: Resection is the method of locating one's position on a map by determining the grid azimuth to at least two well defined locations that can be pinpointed on the map.

 

98. Para 6-8 When using Resection what method can give you greater accuracy?
A: For greater accuracy, the desired method of resection would be to use three  or more well-defined locations.

 

99. Para 6-8 What is modified resection?

A: Modified resection is the method of locating one's position on the map when the person is located on a linear feature on the ground, such as a road, canal, or stream.

 

100. Para 6-8 What are the ways to determine your location on a map?
A: 1. Intersection.

2. Resection.

3. Modified resection.

 

101. Para 6-7 How do you determine your location using Intersection when using the map and compass method?

A: (1) Orient the map using the compass.

(2) Locate and mark your position on the map.

(3) Determine the magnetic azimuth to the unknown position using the compass.

(4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to grid azimuth.

(5) Draw a line on the map from your position on this grid azimuth.

(6) Move to a second known point and repeat steps 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

(7) The location of the unknown position is where the lines cross on the map. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy. 

 

102. Para 6-7 How do you Determine your location using Intersection when straight edge method is used when a compass is not available? 

A: (1) Orient the map on a flat surface by the terrain association method.

(2) Locate and mark your position on the map.

(3) Lay a straight edge on the map with one end at the user’s position as a pivot point; then, rotate the straightedge until the unknown point is sighted along the edge.

(4) Draw a line along the straight edge.

(5) Repeat the above steps at position and check for accuracy.

(6) The intersection of the lines on the map is the location of the unknown point. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.

 

103. Para 6-8 How do you determine your location using Resection when using the map and compass method?

A: (1) Orient the map using the compass.

(2) Identify two or three known distant locations on the ground and mark them on the map.

(3) Measure the magnetic azimuth to one of the known positions from your location using a compass.

(4) Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth.

(5) Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth. Using a protractor, draw a line for the back azimuth on the map from the known position back toward your unknown position.

(6) Repeat 3, 4, and 5 for a second position and a third position, if desired.

(7) The intersection of the lines is your location. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.

 

104. Para 6-8 How do you determine your location using Resection when using the straightedge method?

A: (1) Orient the map on a flat surface by the terrain association method.

(2) Locate at least two known distant locations or prominent features on the ground and mark them on the map.

(3) Lay a straightedge on the map using a known position as a pivot point. Rotate the straightedge until the known position on the map is aligned with the known position on the ground.

(4) Draw a line along the straightedge away from the known position on the ground toward your position.

(5) Repeat 3 and 4 using a second known position.

(6) The intersection of the lines on the map is your location. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.

 

105. Para 6-9 How do you determine your location using the modified resection?
A: 1. Orient the map using a compass or by terrain association.

2. Find a distant point that can be identified on the ground and on the map.

3. Determine the magnetic azimuth from your location to the distant known point.

4. Convert the magnetic azimuth to a grid azimuth.

5. Convert the grid azimuth to a back azimuth. Using a protractor, draw a line for the back azimuth on the map from the known position back toward your unknown position.

6. The location of the user is where the line crosses the linear feature. Determine the grid coordinates to the desired accuracy.

 

106. Para 8-2 What are the two major types of aerial photography?

A: the vertical and the oblique.

 

107. Para 8-2 What is vertical photography?

A: A vertical photograph is taken with the camera pointed as straight down as possible.

 

108. Para 8-2 What the two types of oblique photography?

A: The Low Oblique and the High Oblique.

 

109. Para 8-2 What is low oblique photography?

A: This is a photograph taken with the camera inclined about 30° from the vertical.

 

110.  Para 8-2 What is high oblique photography?

A: The high oblique is a photograph taken with the camera inclined about 60° from the vertical.

 

111. Para 8-2 What is a trimetrogon?

A: This is an assemblage of three photographs taken at the same time, one vertical and two high obliques, in a direction at right angle to the line of flight.

 

 

112. Para 9-1 What is the most common and simplest instrument for measuring direction?

A: The lensatic compass.

 

113. Para 9-1 What are the four different types of compasses used for measuring direction?

A: 1. The lensatic compass.

2. The artillery M2 compass.

3. The wrist/pocket compass.

4. A protractor.

 

114. Para 9-1 What is the the artillery M2 compass?
A: The artillery M2 compass is a special-purpose instrument designed for accuracy.

 

115. Para 9-1 What is the wrist/pocket compass?

A: The wrist/pocket compass is a small magnetic compass that can be attached to a wristwatch band.

 

116. Para 9-2 What are the three major parts of the lensatic compass?

A: 1. Cover.

2. Base.

3. Lens.

 

117. Para 9-2 Describe the purpose of the cover of the lensatic compass?

A: The compass cover protects the floating dial. 

 

118. Para 9-2 What does the base of the lensatic compass contain?

A: (1) The floating dial.

(2) a glass containing a fixed black index line.

(3) The bezel ring that clicks when turned. 

(4) The thumb loop. 

 

119. Para 9-2 What does the lens of the lensatic compass contain?

A: the rear-sight slot, front for sighting on objects, and a rear sight.

 

120. Para 9-4 What are two techniques for using the lensatic compass?

A: 1. the Centerhold Technique.

2. the Compass-to-Cheek Technique.

 

121. Para 9-4 How do you use the centerhold technique?

A: First, open the compass. Move the lens to the rearmost position.,  place your thumb through the thumb loop., Place the thumb of the other hand between the lens and the bezel ring.; extend the index finger along the remaining side of the compass., Pull your elbows firmly into your sides.; 

 

122. Para 9-4 What are the advantages of using the centerhold technique?

A: (1) It is faster and easier to use. 

(2) It can be used under all conditions of visibility.

(3) It can be used when navigating over any type of terrain.

(4) It can be used without putting down the rifle; however, the rifle must be slung well back over either shoulder.

(5) It can be used without removing eyeglasses.

 

123. Para 9-4 How do you use the compass to cheek technique?

A: Fold the cover of the compass containing the sighting wire to a vertical position; then fold the rear sight slightly forward. Look through the rear-sight slot and align the frontsight hairline with the desired object in the distance. Then glance down at the dial through the eye lens to read the azimuth.

 

124. Para 9-4 When is the compass to cheek technique normally used?
A: For Sighting.

 

125. Para 9-5 What are the field expedient methods to determine the four cardinal directions?
A: 1. Shadow-Tip Method.

2. Watch Method.

3. Star Method.

 

126. Para 9-6 What does GPS stand for?

A: Global Positioning System.

 

127. Para 9-6 What is GPS?

A: The GPS is a space-based, global, all-weather, continuously available, radio positioning navigation system.

 

128. Para 9-6 What is the benefit of using a GPS?
A: It is highly accurate in determining position location.

 

129.  Para 10-1 What are reference or start point for vertical measurement of elevation on a standard military map?

A: the datum plane or mean sea level.

 

130. Para 10-1 What is elevation?
A: Elevation of a point on the earth’s surface is the vertical distance it is above or below mean sea level.

 

131. Para 10-1 What is relief?

A: Relief is the representation (as depicted by the mapmaker) of the shapes of hills, valleys, streams, or terrain features on the earth's surface.

 

132. Para 10-1 What is the most common method of showing relief and elevation on a standard topographic map?

A: Contour lines are the most common method of showing relief and elevation on a standard topographic map.

 

133. Para 10-1 What are contour lines and what do they represent on a map?

A: A contour line represents an imaginary line on the ground, above or below sea level.

 

134. Para 10-1 What are the three different types of contour?

A: 1. Index.

2. Intermediate.

3. Supplementary.

 

135. Para 10-4 What are the three different types of slopes?

A: 1. Gentle.

2. Steep.

3. Concave.

4. Convex.

 

136. Para 10-6 What are the five major terrain features?

A: 1. Hill.

2. Saddle.

3. Valley.

4. Ridge.

5. Depression.

 

137. Para 10-6 What are the three minor terrain features?

A: 1. Draw.

2. Cliff.

3. Spur.

 

138. Para 10-6 What are the supplementary terrain features?

A: 1. Cut.

2. Fill.

 

139. Para 11-1 What is the first step to navigation?

A: Orienting the Map.

 

140. Para 11-1 When is a map orientated?

A: A map is oriented when it is in a horizontal position with its north and south corresponding to the north and south on the ground.

 

141. Para 11-1 What are the different ways to orient a map?

A. 1. Using a Compass.

2. Using Terrain Association.

3. Using Field-Expedient Methods.

 

142. Para 11-14 What does the acronym OCOKA stand for?

A: 1. Observation and Fields of Fire.

2. Cover and Concealment.

3. Obstacles.

4. Key Terrain.

5. Avenues of Approach.

 

143. Para 11-6 What are the navigation methods?

A: 1. Dead Reckoning.

2. Moving by Terrain Association.

3. Combination of Techniques.