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The counseling process ATP 6-22.1 Formerly FM 6-22 Appendix B

1. What does ATP 6-22.1 cover?
A: The Counseling Process.

2. What publication covers the counseling process?
A: ATP 6-22.1 (Formerly FM 6-22 Appendix B).

3. Para 1-0 What is Counseling?
A: Counseling is the process used by leaders to review with a subordinate the subordinate’s demonstrated performance and potential.

4. Para 1-0 What is one of the most important leadership and professional development responsibilities?
A: Counseling.

5. Para 1-0 What does The Army’s future and the legacy of today’s Army leaders rest on?
A: The shoulders of those they help prepare for greater responsibility.


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Counseling ATP 6-22.1

Army ATP 6-22.1 Counseling Process Board Questions (Formerly FM 6-22 Appendix B Army Counseling).  These are up to date questions with the new publication of ATP 6-22.1 Which had many changes to the board questions. The purpose is to help Soldiers become better educated and earn quicker Army promotions by assisting in not only their army educations but also their college educations as well.  The source for Army Doctrine 2015, NCO 2020 and Doctrine 2020.  The New Army Study Guide.  This site contains questions and answers for Army boards.   It has been designed to assist Soldiers in preparing for promotion boards and competition boards.  All the questions and answers are directly from Army publications and are designed in a way for Soldiers to learn these publications while also preparing for boards.  It is also managed and updated frequently to keep up with changing army publications so please inform TOP if there is outdated material so that he can keep the material relevant and updated.  Also, Please do not hesitate to contact TOP if there is a board subject that you would like to see added. 

​​6. Para 1-1 What is the Army’s most important tool for developing future leaders at every level?
A: Regular developmental counseling.

7. Para 1-1 What must Army leaders understand about effective counseling?
A: Army leaders must understand that effective counseling helps achieve desired goals and effects, manages expectations, and improves the organization.

8. Para 1-1 Why should Leaders emphasize routine counseling?
A: To reinforce positive behavior and superior performance.


9. Para 1-1 What eight critical Leader responsibilities does regular counseling provide leaders the opportunities for?

A: 1. Demonstrate genuine interest in subordinates.

2. Help subordinates understand their role in accomplishing the unit’s mission.

3. Acknowledge and reinforce exceptional work or dedication.

4. Evaluate subordinates’ potential for development.

5. Provide subordinates with assistance or resources to address issues or further strengths.

6. Empower subordinates to identify and solve issues on their own so they are more self-reliant.

7. Identify issues before they become significant problems.

8. Identify and pre-empt causes of sub-standard performance.

 

10. Para 1-2 What is developmental counseling categorized by?

A: by the purpose of the session.

 

11. Para 1-2 What enables the leader to adapt the counseling session to the individuals to achieve desired outcomes and manage expectations?

A: Understanding the purpose and types of counseling.

 

12. Para 1-2 Is counseling a one-size-fits-all endeavor?

A: No; it is a shared effort between the leader and subordinate.

 

13. Para 1-3 What are the three major categories of developmental counseling?

A: 1. Event counseling.

2. Performance counseling.

3. Professional growth counseling.


14. Para 1-4 What provides a useful framework for Leaders to prepare for counseling?

A: DA Form 4856 (Developmental Counseling Form).

 

15. Para 1-4 Regardless of the purpose or topic of the counseling session what should Leaders follow?

A: leaders should follow a basic format for preparation, execution, and follow-up.

 

16. Para 1-4 What helps Leaders organize the relevant issues to discuss during counseling sessions?

A: DA Form 4856 (Developmental Counseling Form).

 

17. Para 1-5 What does an Event-oriented counseling involve?

A: a Specific Event or Situation.

 

18. Para 1-5 What are some examples of event counseling?

A: 1. Crisis counseling.

2. Referral counseling.

3. Promotion counseling.

4. Transition counseling.

 

19. Para 1-5 What are some examples of the types of events a Leader should do an event Counseling for?

A: 1. Participating in Promotion Boards.

2. Attending Training Courses.

3. Preparing for deployment.

4. Redeployment.

5. Noteworthy Duty Performance.

6. An Issue with Performance.

7. Mission Accomplishment.

8. A Personal Issue.

 

20. Para 1-6 What does the leader use the specific instance counseling session to convey? 

A: The leader uses the counseling session to convey to the subordinate whether or not the performance met the standard and what the subordinate did right or wrong.

 

21. Para 1-6 When should a Leader conduct counseling for specific performance?

A: As Close to the Event as Possible.


​22. Para 1-7 What are the eight actions Leaders are required to take when counseling a subordinate for specific performance?

A: 1. Explain the purpose of the counseling.

2. Remain neutral.

3. Address and explain the specific behavior or action.

4. Explain the effect of the behavior, action, or performance on the rest of the organization.

5. Actively listen to the subordinate’s responses. 

6. If failing to meet the standard, teach them to meet the standard.

7. Be prepared to conduct personal counseling.

8. Explain how to develop an individual development plan. 


23. Para 1-7 What helps ensure that the subordinate knows and consistently achieves the standard?

A: Corrective Training.

 

24. Para 1-7 Who should Leaders always counsel?

A: Subordinates who do Not Meet the Standard.

 

25. Para 1-7 What should happen if the subordinate’s performance is unsatisfactory because of a lack of knowledge or ability?

A: The Leader and Subordinate can Develop a Plan for Improvement.

 

26. Para 1-7 What does corrective training help ensure?

A: That the Subordinate Knows and Consistently Achieves the Standard.

27. Para 1-8 What are the two important purposes of reception and integration counseling?

A: 1. It identifies and helps alleviate any issues or concerns that new members may have, including any issues resulting from the new duty assignment.

2. It familiarizes new team members with organizational standards, roles, and assignments.

 

28. Para 1-9 What discussion points should reception and integration counseling include?

A: 1. history, structure, and mission.

2. Organizational standards.

3. Organizational policies.

4. Chain of command.

5. NCO support channel. 

6. Key leader contact information.

7. Soldier programs. such as Soldier of the Month, Quarter, Year. 

8. Security and safety. 

9. On- and off-duty conduct.

10. Off-limits and danger areas.

11. Personnel procedures.

12. Initial and special clothing issue.

13. On- and off-post recreational, educational, cultural, and historical opportunities.

14. Support activities. 

15. Foreign nation or host nation orientation.

16. Other items of interest as determined by the leader. 

 

29. Para 1-10 What is the purpose of crisis counseling?

A: Getting a Soldier or employee through a period of shock after receiving negative news, such as the notification of the death of a loved one or divorce.

30. Para 1-10 What does crisis counseling focus on?

A: It focuses on the subordinate’s immediate short-term needs.

 

31. Para 1-10 How can Leaders assist their subordinates during a crisis counseling?

A: By listening and providing appropriate assistance such as obtaining emergency funding for transportation or putting them in contact with a chaplain.

32. Para 1-11 What does referral counseling help subordinates work through?

A: a personal situation that may affect performance.

 

33. Para 1-11 What does referral counseling aim at preventing?

A: Aims at preventing a challenge or issue from becoming unmanageable for the subordinate.

 

34. Para 1-11 When should a referral counseling occur?

A: When issues are beyond the capability or expertise of a subordinate’s leaders.

 

35. Para 1-12 Who must Leaders counsel for promotion IAW with Army Regulations?

A: For all specialists, corporals, and sergeants who are eligible for advancement without waivers IAW AR 600-8-19.

 

36. Para 1-13 Which Soldiers does transition counseling assist?

A: Soldiers who are demobilizing, separating, or retiring from active duty.

 

37. Para 1-13 What does transition counseling prepare Soldiers for?

A: For employment, education, and other post-service opportunities and benefits.

 

38. Para 1-14 Who will assist subordinates with transition activities?

A: Leaders and the servicing Army Career and Alumni Program (ACAP) office.

 

39. Para 1-15 What Army Regulation should be cited on a adverse separation counseling?

A: AR 635-200 Active Duty Enlisted Administrative Separations.


40. Para 1-15 What should an adverse separation counseling inform the Soldier?

A: of the administrative actions available to the commander in the event substandard performance continues. (see AR 635-200).

 

41. Para 1-16 What should a Leader do when an individual has engaged in serious acts of misconduct?

A: Leaders should refer the matter to the commander and the servicing staff judge advocate.

42. Para 1-16 What should a Leader do when rehabilitative efforts fail?

A: They should counsel the subordinate with a view towards separation.

 

43. Para 1-16 Why must the Leader complete a separation counseling?

A: It is an administrative prerequisite to many administrative discharges.

 

44. Para 1-16 Who should counsel a Soldier to inform the Soldier of the notification requirements outlined in AR 635-200?

A: The unit First Sergeant or the Commander.

 

45. Para 1-17 What is the purpose of performance counseling?

A: For the Leader and Subordinate to review a subordinate’s duty performance during a specified period.


46. Para 1-17 What is a performance counseling?

A: Performance counseling is the review of a subordinate’s duty performance during a specified period.


47. Para 1-17 What should the leader and subordinate jointly establish during the performance counseling?

A: Performance objectives and clear standards for the next counseling period.

 

48. Para 1-17 What should the Leader focus on during the performance counseling?

A: The counseling focuses on the subordinate’s strengths, areas to improve, and potential.


49. Para 1-17 What would effective performance counseling include?

A: Effective counseling includes providing specific examples of strengths and areas needing improvement and providing guidance on how subordinates can improve their performance.

 

50. Para 1-17 What Army Regulation governs NCOER counseling?

A: AR 623-3.

 

51. Para 1-19 What does performance counseling give Leaders the opportunity to establish and clarify?

A: The expected Values, Attributes, and Competencies.

 

52. Para 1-19 What should Army leaders ensure that performance objectives and standards focus on?

A: The Organization’s Objectives and the individual’s Professional Development.

 

53. Para 1-20 What does professional growth counseling include?

A: Planning for the accomplishment of individual and professional goals.

 

54. Para 1-20 What should the leader and subordinate do during a professional growth counseling?

A: Conduct a review to identify and discuss the subordinate’s strengths and weaknesses and to create an individual development plan that builds upon those strengths and compensates for (or eliminates) shortcomings.

55. Para 1-21 During professional growth counseling, the leader and subordinate may choose to develop what?

A: “A Pathway to Success” with short- and long-term goals and objectives.

 

56. Para 1-21 What should “A Pathway to Success” include?

A: Short- and Long-Term goals and Objectives.


57. Para 1-21 During discussion between the Leader and subordinate about short- and long-term goals and objectives what topics should be discussed?

A: The discussion includes opportunities for civilian or military schooling, future duty assignments, special programs, available training support resources, reenlistment options, and promotion opportunities and considerations.

 

58. Para 1-21 What does the documentation of short- and long-term goals and objectives develop?

A: An Individual Development Plan.

 

59. Para 1-21 Will the individual development plan be the same if all squad members perform the same mission?

A: Each individual development plan will vary as every person’s needs and interests are different.

 

60. Para 2-1 What must counseling be for it to be effective?

A: a Shared Effort.

 

61. Para 2-1 During counseling what do Leaders assist their subordinates with?

A: Leaders assist their subordinates in identifying strengths and weaknesses and creating plans of action.


62. Para 2-1 To achieve success, subordinates must be forthright in what?

A: In their commitment to improve and candid in their own assessments and goal setting.

 

63. Para 2-1 What do Leaders do once an individual development plan is agreed upon?

A: They support their Soldiers and civilians throughout the plan implementation and perform continued assessment.

 

64. Para 2-2 Is the DA Form 4856 adequate to address civilian counseling concerning Army civilian misconduct or poor performance?

A: Yes; 

65. Para 2-3 What will enhance personal effectiveness as a counselor?

A: Leader Self-Awareness and an adaptable counseling style focusing on key characteristics will enhance personal effectiveness as a counselor.

 

66. Para 2-3 What are the five key characteristics of an effective counselor?

A: 1. Purpose.

2. Flexibility.

3. Respect.

4. Communication.

5. Support.

 

67. Para 2-3 Explain the key characteristic of purpose?

A: Clearly define the purpose of the counseling.

 

68. Para 2-3 Explain the key characteristic of flexibility?

A: Adapt the counseling approach to each subordinate, situation, and relationship.

69. Para 2-3 Explain the key characteristic of respect?

A: View subordinates as unique, complex individuals with distinct values, beliefs, and attitudes.

 

70. Para 2-3 Explain the key characteristic of communication?

A: Establish open, two-way communication with subordinates using verbal and nonverbal actions (such as body language or gestures). Effective counselors listen more than they speak.

 

71. Para 2-3 Explain the key characteristic of support?

A: Encourage subordinates through direction, guidance, and supportive actions.

 

72. Para 2-4 What are the five qualities of an effective counselor?

A: 1. Respect for Subordinates.

2. Self-Awareness.

3. Cultural Awareness.

4. Empathy.

5. Credibility.

 

73. Para 2-5 What is a challenging aspect of counseling?

A: Selecting the proper approach to a specific situation.

 

74. Para 2-6 How do self-aware Army leaders consistently develop and improve their own counseling abilities?

A: By studying human behavior, learning the kinds of problems that affect their followers, and developing their interpersonal skills.

 

75. Para 2-6 What are the general skills that Leaders will need in almost every counseling situation?

A: Active Listening, Responding, and Appropriate Questioning.


76. Para 2-8 To be effective while counseling, Leaders must have what three basic counseling skills?

A: 1. Active listening.

2. Responding.

3. Appropriate questioning


​77. Para 2-9 What may indicate a subordinate’s priorities during a counseling session?

A: A subordinate’s Opening and Closing statements as well as recurring references.


78. Para 2-9 What may indicate an avoidance by the subordinate of the real issue during a counseling session?

A: Inconsistencies and Gaps in their story.

79. Para 2-9 What should the leader do if a Subordinate has Inconsistencies and gaps in their story?

A: The Leader should Ask more Questions.


80. Para 2-10 What does active listening help communicate to the subordinate during counseling?

A: Active listening communicates that the leader values the subordinate and enables reception of the subordinate’s message.

 

81. Para 2-10 What are the six key elements of active listening?

A: 1. Eye Contact. 

2. Body Posture.

3. Head Nods.

4. Facial Expressions.

5. Verbal Expressions.

6. Check for Understanding.

 

82. Para 2-10 What is important about eye contact during the counseling?

A: Maintaining eye contact without staring helps show sincere interest. 

83. Para 2-10 What is important about body posture during the counseling?

A: Being relaxed and comfortable will help put the subordinate at ease. 

 

84. Para 2-10 What is important about head nods during the counseling?

A: Occasional nodding indicates attention and encourages the subordinate to continue.

 

85. Para 2-10 What is important about facial expressions during the counseling?

A: Keep facial expressions natural and relaxed to signal a sincere interest.

 

86. Para 2-10 What is important about verbal expressions during the counseling?

A: Refrain from talking too much and avoid interrupting. 

 

87. Para 2-10 What is important about check for understanding during the counseling?

A: Paraphrase or Summarize points back to the subordinate for confirmation; for example, “What I heard was…”.

 

88. Para 2-11 How do Leaders ensure they understand the message fully from their subordinates during a counseling session?

A: Leaders pay attention to the Subordinate’s Gestures.


89. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal indicators of the Leader or subordinate’s attitude during counseling?

A: 1. Interest, Friendliness, and Openness. 

2. Self-Confidence.

3. Anxiety.

4. Boredom.

5. Defensiveness.

6. Frustration.

 

90. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal indicators of boredom?

A: 1. Drumming on the table.

2. Doodling.

3. Clicking a ballpoint pen.

4. Resting the head in the palm of the hand.

 

91. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal indicators of self-confidence?

A: 1. Standing Tall.

2. Leaning back with hands behind the head.

3. Maintaining steady Eye Contact.

92. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal indicators of defensiveness?

A: 1. Pushing deeply into a chair.

2. Glaring at the Leader.

3. Making Sarcastic Comments as well as Crossing or Folding Arms in front of the chest.

 

93. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal indicators of frustration?

A: 1. Rubbing eyes.

2. Pulling on an ear.

3. Taking short breaths.

4.  Wringing the hands.

5. Frequently changing Total Body Position.

 

94. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal Indicators of interest, friendliness, and openness?

A: Moving Toward the Leader while sitting.

 

95. Para 2-11 What are some nonverbal indicators of anxiety?

A: Sitting on the Edge of the Chair with arms uncrossed and hands open.

 

96. Para 2-13 What are the two ways that a Leaders responds during a counseling session?

A: Leader responds Verbally and Nonverbally to show Understanding of the Subordinate.

 

97. Para 2-13 How should a Leader verbally respond during a counseling session?

A: Leader’s Verbal responses should consist of Summarizing, Interpreting, and Clarifying the Subordinate’s Message.

 

98. Para 2-13 What are a Leader’s nonverbal responses during a counseling session?

A: Nonverbal responses include Eye Contact and occasional Gestures such as a head nod.

99. Para 2-14 When asking the subordinate questions during a counseling session what should the Leader avoid?

A: Counselors should use caution or avoid  asking Focused Questions.

 

100. Para 2-14 How should a counselor ask questions during a counseling session?

A: ask questions that don't require a yes or no.

 

101. Para 2-14 How do well-posed questions by a counselor enhance a counseling session?

A: They Deepen understanding, encourage further discussion, and create a constructive experience.

102. Para 2-15 What are some counseling errors that interfere with effective counseling?

A: 1. Dominating the counseling by Talking too much.

2. Giving unnecessary or Inappropriate Advice.

3. Not truly Listening.

4.  Projecting Biases and Prejudices.

5. Rash Judgments.

6. Stereotyping.

7. Losing Emotional Control.

8. Inflexible Counseling Methods.

9. Improper Follow-Up.


103. Para 2-16 What general guidelines should Leaders follow to conduct effective counseling sessions?

A: 1. Determine the subordinate’s role.

2. Focus attention on the subordinate. 

3. Encourage the subordinate to take the initiative and speak aloud.

4. Remain objective.

5. Display empathy.

6. Ask Open-Ended questions. 

7. Listen more and Talk Less.

8. Keep personal experiences out of the counseling session.

9. Draw conclusions based on all available information.

10. Enable the subordinate to help himself or herself.

11. Know what information to keep confidential and what to present to the chain of command.


104. Para 2-17 What should Leaders do when an issue is beyond their control while trying to assist and help a Soldier?

A: Refer the subordinate to an agency more qualified to help.


105. Para 2-19 Why might a leader be resistant or reluctant to counsel subordinates?

A: 1. has Never Been Counseled Previously.

2. has had No Effective Role Modeling. 

3. may Not Understand How to conduct counseling. 

4.  may Feel there is No Time to do counseling.

5. may Think Counseling will Not Be a Constructive Use of Time.

6. may be Worried that the Counseling will Violate a Regulation or Policy.

7. may Associate counseling with Only Negative issues. 

8. may Not want to Confront a subordinate.

9. has a Lack of Respect for the subordinate.

10. Believes the subordinate Lacks Potential.

11. has been Encountering Constant Issues with the subordinate.

 

106. Para 2-20 Why may a subordinate be resistant to counseling?

A: 1. As a reaction to the Purpose or Message. 

2. may be Embarrassed.

3. Misunderstand the Intention.

4. Disagree with the Leader’s Assessment. 

5. Subordinate may Not want to Change.

6. May Blame the Leader. 

7. May Dislike being Held Accountable.

8. May Defy Being Disciplined.

9. may Not Respect or Trust the Leader.

 

107. Para 2-21 How may a Leader preempt potential subordinate resistance?

A: By opening the counseling session with a discussion of the purpose of the session, expectations of the session, and how they relate to the subordinate’s short- and long-term goals.

 

108. Para 2-22 How can Leader resistance or reluctance to counsel be overcome?

A: Through preparation and improving counseling skills.

 

109. Para 2-23 What techniques can Leaders employ to overcome subordinate resistance by redirecting the subordinate?

A: 1. Reconfirm the counseling session purpose.

2. Keep the discussion professional and balanced in tone.

3. Discuss the suspected resistance openly with the subordinate and respect his or her response.

4. Slow the tempo of the session.

5. Focus on one specific behavior, its effect, and the consequences to minimize overwhelming the subordinate.

 

110. Para 2-24 What are the four stages of the counseling process?

A: 1. Identify the need for counseling.

2. Prepare for counseling.

3. Conduct the counseling session.

4. Follow-Up.

 

111. Para 2-27 What are the seven areas for successful counseling during stage 2 of prepare for counseling?

A: 1. Select a Suitable place.

2. Schedule the time.

3. Notify the subordinate Well in Advance.

4. Outline the components of the counseling session.

5. Organize information and draft a plan of action.

6. Plan the counseling strategy.

7. Establish the right atmosphere.

 

112. Para 2-28 Explain select a suitable place to prepare for counseling?

A: Conduct the counseling session in an environment that minimizes interruptions and is free from distracting sights and sounds.

 

113. Para 2-29 Explain schedule the time to prepare for counseling?

A: When possible, leaders should formally counsel a subordinate during the duty day. 

114. Para 2-30 Explain notify the subordinate well in advance for counseling?

A: The person to be counseled should know why, where, and when the counseling takes place. 

 

115. Para 2-31 Explain outline the counseling session for counseling?

A: a written outline can help keep the session on track and enhances the chances for success.

 

​116. Para 2-32 Explain organize information and draft a plan of action to prepare for counseling?

A: Prepare main points of discussion with possible questions to pose to the subordinate.

 

117. Para 2-33 Explain plan the counseling strategy to prepare for counseling?

A: Leaders plan each counseling session, tailoring the counseling session to the individual and situation.


118. Para 2-35 What are the four counseling techniques that can be used during nondirective or combined approaches?

A: 1. Suggesting alternatives.

2. Recommending.

3. Persuading.

4. Advising.


119. Para 2-35 Describe how to use the suggesting alternatives technique?

A: Discuss alternative actions the subordinate may take. 

 

120. Para 2-35 Describe how to use the recommending technique?

A: Recommend one course of action, but leave the decision to accept it to the subordinate.

 

121. Para 2-35 Describe how to use the persuading technique?

A: Persuade the subordinate that a given course of action is best, but leave the final decision to the subordinate.

122. Para 2-35 Describe how to use the advising technique?

A: Advise the subordinate that a given course of action is best. This is the strongest form of influence not involving a command.

 

123. Para 2-36 What are the two counseling techniques that can be used during the directive approach to counseling?

A: 1. Corrective Training.

2. Commanding.

 

124. Para 2-36 Describe how to use the corrective training technique?

A: Teach and assist the subordinate in attaining and maintaining the required standard. 

 

125. 2-36 Describe how to use the commanding technique?

A: Order the subordinate to take a given course of action in clear, precise words.

 

126. Para 2-38 Explain establish the right atmosphere prepare for counseling?

A: The right atmosphere promotes open, two-way communication between a leader and subordinate.


127. Para 2-40 What are the four basic components of a counseling session?

A: 1. Open the session.

2. Discuss the issues.

3. Develop a plan of action.

4. Record and close the session

 

128. Para 2-41 How should you open the session?

A: The leader makes the purpose clear and establishes a subordinate-centered setting as appropriate for the situation.

 

129. Para 2-43 What does a plan of action identify?

A: A plan of action identifies a method and pathway for achieving a desired result, limited to one or two realistic goals tied to work or life events with milestones that allow for monitoring progress.

 

130. Para 2-45 How should you record the session?

A: by using DA Form 4856.

 

131. Para 2-47 What should Leaders do to close the session?

A: Leaders should close the session by asking the counseled subordinate to summarize key points and expectations based on the proposed plan of action.

 

132. Para 2-47 What should the Leader provide the subordinate during the closing of the session for the follow-up measures?

A: providing the subordinate with specific resources and time, periodic assessments of the plan and additional referrals and schedule future meetings before dismissing the subordinate.

 

133. Para 2-50 What should new Leaders or Leaders that do not have much experience counseling subordinates use as a quick Reference to prepare for a counseling session with their subordinates?

A: Table 2-2 from ATP 6-22.1 “The Summary of Counseling” Checklist.

 

134. Table 2-1 What are the three approaches to counseling?

A: 1. Nondirective.

2. Directive.

3. Combined.

 

135. Table 2-1 What are the advantages of nondirective approach?

A: 1. Encourages maturity.

2. Encourages open communication.

3. Develops personal responsibility.

136. Table 2-1 What are the disadvantages of nondirective approach?

A: 1. More time-consuming.

2. Requires greatest counselor skills.

 

137. Table 2-1 What are the advantages of directive approach?

A: 1. Quickest method.

2. Good for people who need clear, concise direction.

3. Allows counselors to use their experience.

 

138. Table 2-1 What are the disadvantages of directive approach?

A: 1. Does not encourage subordinates to be part of the solution.

2. Tends to treat symptoms and not the problems.

3. Tends to discourage subordinates from talking freely.

4. Solution is the counselor’s, not the subordinate’s.

139. Table 2-1 What are the advantages of combined approach?

A: 1. Moderately Quick.

2. Encourages maturity.

3. Encourages open communication.

4. Allows counselors to use their experience.

 

140. Table 2-1 What is the disadvantage of the combined approach?

A: May take too much time for some situations.