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ADP 5-0 & ADRP 5-0 Operations Process
1. Q. What does ADP 5-0 cover?
A: Operations Process
2. Q. What does the Operations Process constitute for the Army?
A: The Operations Process constitutes the Army’s view on planning, preparing, executing, and assessing operations
3. Q. What does the Operations Process account for?
A: It accounts for the complex, ever-changing, and uncertain nature of operations and recognizes that a military operation is foremost a human undertaking
4. Q. Fig 1 What is the Army’s Framework for Exercising Mission Command?
A: The Operations Process
5. Q. Fig 1 What are the Major Command activities performed during Operations?
A: 1. Planning 2. Preparing 3. Executing 4. Continuously assessing the operation
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6. Q. Fig 1 What is Planning?
A: The art and science of understanding a situation, envisioning a desired future, and laying out effective ways of bringing that future about
7. Q. Fig 1 What is Preparing?
A: Those activities performed by units and Soldiers to improve their ability to execute an operation
8. Q. Fig 1 What is Execution?
A: Putting a plan into action by applying combat power to accomplish the mission
9. Q. Fig 1 Fig 1 What is Assessing?
A: The continuous determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating an effect, or achieving an objective
10. Q: Fig 1 How do Commanders use the Operations Process?
A: Through the support of their Staff, Commanders use the Operations Process to drive the conceptual and detailed planning necessary to understand, visualize, and describe their operational environment; make and articulate decisions; and direct, lead, and assess military operations
11. Q. Fig 1 What are the four Principles that guide the Operations Process?
A: 1. Commanders drive the Operations Process
2. Apply critical and creative thinking
3. Build and maintain situational understanding
4. Encourage collaboration and dialog
12. Q. Para 1. What are the major mission command activities performed during operations?
A: 1. Planning
4. Assessing the Operation
13. Q. Para 2 What happens upon completion of the initial order?
A: planning continues as leaders revise the plan based on changing circumstances
14. Q. Para 3 What is the Staff’s role during the Operations Process?
A: to assist commanders with understanding situations, making and implementing decisions, controlling operations, and assessing progress
15. Q. Para 3 What other function does the Staff perform during the Operations Process besides assisting the Commander?
A: staff assists subordinate units and keeps units and organizations outside the headquarters informed throughout the operations process
16. Q. Para 3 What ATTP discusses the duties and responsibilities of the staff in detail?
A: ATTP 5-0.1
17. Q. Para 4 During the Operations Process, what does Mission Command require?
A: an environment of mutual trust and shared understanding among commanders, staffs, and subordinates
18. Q. Para 4 What type of Command Climate is required?
A: a command climate in which commanders encourage subordinates to accept prudent risk and exercise disciplined initiative to seize opportunities and counter threats within the commander’s intent
19. Q. Para 4 What allows subordinates the greatest possible freedom of action?
A: commanders focusing their instructions on the purpose of the operation rather than on the details of how to perform assigned tasks
20. Q. Para 4 What does the Philosophy of Mission Command do?
A: guides commanders, staffs, and subordinates as they plan, prepare, execute, and assess operations
21. Q. Para 5 How must Commanders organize and train their staffs and subordinates?
A: as an integrated team to simultaneously plan, prepare, execute, and assess operations
22. Q. Para 6 How do commanders drive the operations process?
A: through understanding, visualizing, describing, directing, leading, and assessing operations
23. Q. Para 7 What does it mean to Understand Something?
A: to grasp its nature and significance
24. Q. Para 7 What is an Operational Environment?
A: influences that affect the employment of capabilities and bear on the decisions of the commander
25. Q. Para 8 What is the Commander’s Visualization?
A: the mental process of developing situational understanding, determining a desired end state, and envisioning an operational approach by which the force will achieve that end state
26. Q. Para 9 What are the four ways Commanders express their visualization?
A: 1. Commander’s
2. Planning guidance, including an operational approach
3. Commander’s critical information requirements
4. Essential elements of friendly information
27. Q. Para 10 What is the Commander’s Intent?
A: clear and concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the desired military end state that supports mission command, provides focus to the staff, and helps subordinate and supporting commanders act to achieve the commander’s desired results without further orders, even when the operation does not unfold as planned
28. Q. Para 11 What does the Commander’s Planning Guidance provide?
A: It conveys the essence of their visualization
29. Q. Para 11 What does Effective planning guidance provide?
A: It broadly describes when, where, and how the commander intends to employ combat power to accomplish the mission within the higher commander’s intent
30. Q. Para 11 What is Operational Approach?
A: broadly describes when, where, and how the commander intends to employ combat power to accomplish the mission within the higher commander’s intent
31. Q. Para 12 What does the Acronym CCIR stand for?
A: Commander’s Critical Information Requirements
32. Q. Para 12 How do Commanders use CCIR’s?
A: Commanders use CCIRs to focus information collection on the relevant information they need to make critical decisions throughout the conduct of operations
33. Q. Para 12 What are the two components of CCIR’s?
A: friendly force information requirements and priority intelligence requirements
34. Q. Para 13 What does the Acronym EEFI stand for?
A: Essential Elements of Friendly Information
35. Q. Para 13 What does EEFI’s identify?
A: elements of friendly force information that, if compromised, would jeopardize mission success
36. Q. Para 14 What are the seven ways Commanders can direct forces throughout the operations process?
A: 1. Preparing and approving plans and orders
2. Establishing command and support relationships
3. Assigning and adjusting tasks, control measures, and task organization
4. Positioning units to maximize combat power
5. Positioning key leaders at critical places and times to ensure supervision
6. Allocating resources to exploit opportunities and counter threats
7. Committing the reserve as required
37. Q. Para 15. How does a Commander show Leadership?
A: By providing purpose, direction and motivation to Subordinate Commanders, Staff and Soldiers
38. Q. Para 15 In what way must a Commander Balance their Time?
A: between leading the staff through the operations process and providing purpose, direction, and motivation to subordinate commanders and Soldiers away from the command post
39. Q. Para 16 Why do Commanders continuously assess the situation?
A: to better understand current conditions and determine how the operation is progressing
40. Q. Para 17 What is Situational Understanding?
A: Situational understanding is the product of applying analysis and judgment to relevant information to determine the relationships among the operational and mission variables to facilitate decision-making
41. Q. Para 18 What do Commanders and staffs use help build their situational understanding?
A: Commanders and staffs use the operational and mission variables
42. Q. Para 18 What are the eight interrelated operational variables that Commanders and staff use to analyze and describe an operational environment?
A: 1. Political
43. Q. Para 18 What does the Acronym PMESII-PT stand for?
A: the eight interrelated operational variables: political, military, economic, social, information, infrastructure, physical environment, and time
44. Q. Para 18 What does the Acronym METT-TC stand for?
A: mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations
45. Q. Para 18 What are the six Mission Variables?
A: mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available, time available, and civil considerations (METT-TC)
46. Q. Para 19 What is Critical Thinking?
A: Critical thinking is purposeful and reflective judgment about what to believe or what to do in response to observations, experience, verbal or written expressions, or arguments
47. Q. Para 19 What does Critical Thinking lead to?
A: Creative thinking leads to new insights, novel approaches, fresh perspectives, and new ways of understanding and conceiving things
48. Q. Para 20 What are some things included in the analysis during the Operations Process?
A: weapons system ranges, mobility options afforded by terrain and weather, operational reach, communications system range, sustainment, and other considerations of the operational and mission variables
49. Q. Para 21 What is Collaboration?
A: Collaboration is two or more people or organizations working together toward common goals by sharing knowledge and building consensus
50. Q. Para 21 What is Dialogue?
A: Dialogue is a way to collaborate by involving the candid exchange of ideas or opinions among participants that encourages frank discussions in areas of disagreement
51. Q. Para 22 What do Collaboration and Dialogue assist in developing?
A: Collaboration and dialogue assist in developing shared understanding and purpose, building teams, and making rapid adjustments during execution
52. Q. Para 23 What are the four Major Mission Command activities that the Operations Process consists of?
A: 1. Planning
53. Q. Para 24 What is Planning?
A: Planning is the art and science of understanding a situation, envisioning a desired future, and laying out effective ways of bringing that future about
54. Q. Para 24 What does Planning result in?
A: Planning results in a plan or order that communicates this vision and directs actions to synchronize forces in time, space, and purpose for achieving objectives and accomplishing missions
55. Q. Para 25 What are the two separate components of Planning?
A: a conceptual component and a detailed component
56. Q. Para 25 What does Conceptual Planning involve?
A: Conceptual planning involves understanding the operational environment and the problem, determining the operation’s end state, and visualizing an operational approach
57. Q. Para 25 What does Detailed Planning translate?
A: Detailed planning translates the broad operational approach into a complete and practical plan
58. Q. Para 25 What will good detailed planning work out?
A: the scheduling, coordination, or technical problems involved with moving, sustaining, and synchronizing the actions of force as a whole toward a common goal
59. Q. Para 26 What is Operational Art?
A: the cognitive approach by commanders and staffs—supported by their skill, knowledge, experience, creativity, and judgment—to develop strategies, campaigns, and operations to organize and employ military forces by integrating ends, ways, and means
60. Q. Para 27 What are the ten elements of Operational Art?
A: 1. End state and Conditions
2. Center of Gravity 3. Decisive Points
4. Lines of Operations and Lines of Effort
5. Operational Reach
8. Phasing and Transitions
61. Q. Para 28 What are the three Army Planning Methodologies?
A: 1. Army design methodology
2. Military decision making process
3. Troop leading procedures
62 Q. Para 28 What does the Acronym MDMP stand for?
A: Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)
63. Q. Para 28 What does the Acronym TLP stand for?
A: Troop Leading Procedures (TLP)
64. Q. Para 29 What is the Army Design Methodology?
A: Army design methodology is a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe unfamiliar problems and approaches to solving them
65. Q. Para 30 What does Army design methodology results in?
A: Army design methodology results in an improved understanding of the operational environment, a problem statement, an initial commander’s intent, and an operational approach that serves as the link between conceptual and detailed planning
66. Q. Para 31 What does Reframing involve?
A: revisiting earlier hypotheses, conclusions, and decisions that underpin the current operational approach
67. Q. Para 31 What can Reframing lead to?
A: Reframing can lead to a new problem statement and operational approach, resulting in an entirely new plan
68. Q. Para 32 What is the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)?
A: military decision making process is an iterative planning methodology to understand the situation and mission, develop a course of action, and produce an operation plan or order
69. Q. Para 32 What does The MDMP result in?
A: The MDMP results in an improved understanding of the situation and a plan or order that guides the force through preparation and execution
70. Q. Para 32 How does MDMP help Leaders?
A: by applying thoroughness, clarity, sound judgment, logic, and professional knowledge to understand situations, develop options to solve problems, and reach decisions
71. Q. Para 33 Who will higher headquarters solicit input and continually share information with concerning future operations?
A: subordinate and adjacent units, supporting and supported units, and unified action partners
72. Q. Para 33 How will higher headquarters solicit input and continually share information with concerning future operations?
A: through planning meetings, warning orders, and other means
73. Q. Para34 what are the steps of MDMP?
A: 1. Receipt of mission
2. Mission analysis
3. Coa development
4. Coa analysis
5. Coa comparison
6. Coa approval
7. Orders production, dissemination and transition
74. Q. Para 35 What are Troop Leading Procedures (TLP’s)?
A: Troop leading procedures are a dynamic process used by small-unit leaders to analyze a mission, develop a plan, and prepare for an operation
75. Q. Para 35. What are the Eight Troop Leading Procedure Steps?
A: 1. Receive the mission
2. Issue the warning order
3. Make a tentative plan
4. Initiate movement
5. Conduct reconnaissance
6. Complete the plan
7. Issue the order
8. Supervise and refine the plan
76. Q. Para 36 Must Leaders perform all eight of the TLP’s in order?
A: No, they are not Rigid and can be done in another order depending on specific mission
77. Q. Para 36 What should higher headquarters do to optimize available time for subordinates to perform TLP’s?
A: They should issue frequent Warning Orders (WARNO) to allow subordinate units maximum time to conduct TLP’s
78. Q. Para 37 What does effective planning require?
A: dedication, study, and practice
79. Q. Para 37 How do commanders effectively plan?
A: 1. commanders focus planning
2. Develop simple, Flexible plans through mission orders
3. Optimize available planning time
4. Continually refine the plan
80. Q. Para 38 Who is the most important participants in effective planning?
A: The Commander
81. Q. Para 38 How does the Commander focus the planning efforts?
A: by providing their commander’s intent, issuing planning guidance, and making decisions throughout the planning process
82. Q. Para 39 How should Staff prepare effective plans and orders are simple and direct?
A: Staffs prepare clear, concise orders that communicate an understanding of the operation through the use of doctrinally correct operational terms and symbols; Shorter, rather than longer, plans aid in simplicity
83. Q. Para 40 What type of plans help units adapt quickly to changing circumstances?
A: Flexible Plans
84. Q. Para 41 What are Mission Orders?
A: directives that emphasize to subordinates the results to be attained, not how they are to achieve them
85. Q. Para 41 What should Mission Orders clearly convey?
A: the unit’s mission and the commander’s intent
86. Q. Para 42 What is a guide to allocate time available that Commanders and Staff should use when planning?
A: “one-third—two-thirds rule”
87. Q. Para 42 What is the “one-third—two-thirds rule”?
A: Commanders and Staff use one-third of the time available before execution for their planning and allocate the remaining two-thirds of the time available before execution to their subordinates for planning and preparation
88. Q. Para 43 Once a Plan has been made, can it be changed or modified?
89. Q. Para 43 What are some of the ways that help to refine a plan?
A: confirmation briefings, rehearsals and changes in the situation
90. Q. Para 44 What does Preparation consist of?
A: Preparation consists of those activities performed by units and Soldiers to improve their ability to execute an operation
91. Q. Para 44 What does Preparation create?
A: Preparation creates conditions that improve friendly forces’ opportunities for success
92. Q. Para 44 What are some of the 17 Mission Preparation Activities?
A: 1. Continue to coordinate and conduct liaison
2. Initiate information collection
3. Initiate security operations
4. Initiate troop movement
5. Initiate sustainment preparations
6. Initiate network preparations
7. Manage terrain
8. Prepare terrain
9. Conduct confirmation briefs
10. Conduct rehearsals
11. Conduct plans-to-operations transitions
12. Revise and refine the plan
13. Integrate new Soldiers and units
14. Complete task organization
16. Perform pre-operations checks and inspections
17. Continue to build partnerships and teams
93. Q. Para 45 What are the five Guidelines that Aid in effective preparation of Subordinates?
A: 1. Secure and protect the force 2. Improve situational understanding
3. Understand, rehearse and refine the plan
4. Integrate, organize and configure the force
5. Ensure forces and resources are ready and positioned
94. Q. Para 46 When is the Force as a whole most vulnerable to surprise and enemy attack?
A: during preparation
95. Q. Para 46 What is done to minimize vulnerability during preparation?
A: security operations—screen, guard, cover, area security, and local security—are essential during preparation
96. Q. Para 47 What helps leaders improve their understanding of the friendly force?
A: 1. Inspections
97. Q. Para 48 What do Rehearsals help Leaders and Soldiers understand?
A: they help improve understanding of the concept of operations, control measures, decision points, and command and support relationships
98. Q. Para 49 When detaching units, moving forces, and receiving and integrating new units and Soldiers into the force, what is the most important thing the Commander should give to the Subordinate units?
A: Time for those personnel to integrate and to learn the gaining unit’s standard operating procedures and the plan the gaining unit will execute
99. Q. Para 50 What ensures that the right forces are in the right place, at the right time, with the right equipment and other resources ready to execute the operation?
A: Effective preparation
100. Q. Para 51 What is Execution?
A: Execution is putting a plan into action by applying combat power to accomplish the mission
101. Q. Para 51 During Execution, Commanders will apply combat power for what purpose?
A: to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage
102. Q. Para 52 What must happen to overcome the difficulties of enemy action, friendly errors, and other changes in their operational environment?
A: During mission execution, Commanders must direct their units forcefully and promptly
103. Q. Para 53 What is a Decision Point?
A: a point in space or time the commander or staff anticipates making a key decision concerning a specific course of action
104. Q. Para 53 What is an adjustment decision?
A: An adjustment decision is the selection of a course of action that modifies the order to respond to unanticipated opportunities or threats
105. Q. Para 55 What guides aid subordinate leaders in effective execution?
A: 1. Seize the initiative through action
2. Accept prudent risk to exploit opportunities
106. Q. Para 56 How can Commanders create conditions for seizing the initiative?
A: By taking Action
107. Q. Para 56 When faced with an uncertain situation what do people naturally tend to do?
A: hesitate and gather more information to reduce the uncertainty
108. Q. Para 56 What could hesitation and waiting to gather more information do in an operation?
A: it could give the enemy the advantage as they could seize the initiative
109. Q. Para 57 What is Prudent Risk?
A: Prudent risk is a deliberate exposure to potential injury or loss when the commander judges the outcome in terms of mission accomplishment as worth the cost
110. Q Para 58 What is Assessment?
A: Assessment is the determination of the progress toward accomplishing a task, creating an effect, or achieving an objective
111. Q. Para 59 What are the three Assessment Activities?
A: 1. Monitoring the current situation to collect relevant information
2. Evaluating progress toward attaining end state conditions, achieving objectives, and completing tasks
3. Recommending or directing action for improvement
112. Q. Para 60 What are the Primary tools for Assessing?
A: running estimates, after action reviews, and the assessment plan
113. Q. Para 60 What do Running estimates provide?
A: information, conclusions, and recommendations from the perspective of each staff section
114. Q. Para 60 What do Running estimates help to refine?
A: the common operational picture and supplement it with information not readily displayed
115. Q. Para 60 What do formal and informal after action reviews help identify?
A: what was supposed to happen, what went right, and what went wrong for a particular action or operation, and how the commander and staff should do things differently in the future
116. Q. Para 60 What does The assessment plan include?
A: measures of effectiveness, measures of performance, and indicators that help the commander and staff evaluate progress toward accomplishing tasks and achieve objectives
117. Q. Para 61 What is a Running Estimate?
A: A running estimate is the continuous assessment of the current situation used to determine if the current operation is proceeding according to the commander’s intent and if planned future operations are supportable
118. Q. Para 61 What do Effective plans and successful preparation, execution and assessment rely on?
A: accurate running estimates
119. Q. Para 62 What are the four guides that aid in effective assessment?
A: 1. Commanders prioritize the assessment effort
2. Incorporate the logic of the plan
3. Use caution when establishing cause and effect 4. Combine quantitative and qualitative indicators
120. Q. Para 63 What should Commanders avoid burdening subordinates and staffs with?
A: Commanders should avoid burdening subordinates and staffs with overly detailed assessments and collection tasks
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