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ADP 4-0 & ADRP 4-0 Sustainment 
1. Q. What does ADP 4-0 cover?
A: Sustainment.


2. Q. Para 1. What three major elements of sustainment?
A: Logistics, personnel services and health services.


3. Q. Para 1. What is the Sustainment warfighting function?
A: is related tasks and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action, extend operational reach, and prolong endurance.

4. Q. Para 2. What is Logistics?
A: Logistics is planning and executing of the movement and support of forces. 


5. Q. Para 2. What are some examples of Logistics?
A: Transportation (FM 55-1), Supply (FM 10-1), Field services (FM 10-1), Distribution (ATTP 4-0.1), Operational contract support (ATTP 4-10), General engineering support (FM 3-34).


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​​6. Q. Para 3. What are Personnel services?
A: sustainment functions that man and fund the force, maintain Soldier and Family readiness, promote the moral and ethical values of the nation, and enable the fighting qualities of the Army.


7. Q. Para 3. What do Personnel services consist of?
A: Human resources support (FM 1-0), Financial management operations (FM 1-06), Legal support (FM 1-04), Religious support (FM 1-05) and Band support (ATTP 1-19).

8. Q. Para 4. What is Health service support?
A:  all support and services performed, provided, and arranged by the Army Medical Department to promote, improve, conserve, or restore the mental and physical wellbeing of personnel in the Army and, as directed, in other Services, agencies, and organizations.


9. Q. Para 4. What does Health service support consists of?

A: Casualty care, Medical evacuation, Medical logistics.


10. Q. Para 4. What does Casualty care consist of?

A: Organic and area medical support, Hospitalization, Dental care, Behavioral health/neuropsychiatric treatment, Clinical laboratory services and Treatment of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear patients.


11. Q. Para 5-13. What are the principals of sustainability?

A: Integration, anticipation, responsiveness, simplicity, economy, survivability, continuity and improvision.


12. Q. Para 6. What is Integration?

A: Integration is combining all of the elements of sustainment to operations assuring unity of command and effort.


13. Q. Para 7. What is Anticipation?

A: Anticipation is the ability to foresee operational requirements and initiate actions that satisfy a response without waiting for an operations order or fragmentary order.


14. Q. Para 8. What is Responsiveness?

A: Responsiveness is the ability to react to changing requirements and respond to meet the needs to maintain support.


15. Q. Para 9. What is Simplicity?

A: Simplicity relates to processes and procedures to minimize the complexity of sustainment.


16. Q. Para 10. What is Economy?

A: Economy is providing sustainment resources in an efficient manner to enable a commander to employ all assets to achieve the greatest effect possible.


17. Q. Para 11. What is Survivability?

A: Survivability is all aspects of protecting personnel, weapons, and supplies while simultaneously deceiving the enemy.


18. Q. Para 12. What is Continuity?

A: Continuity is the uninterrupted provision of sustainment across all levels of war.


19. Q. Para 13. What is Improvision?

A: Improvisation is the ability to adapt sustainment operations to unexpected situations or circumstances affecting a mission.


20. Q. Para 14. What does the principles of personnel services do?

A:  guide the functions for maintaining Soldier and Family support, establishing morale and welfare, funding the force, and enforcing the rules of law.


21. Q. Para 15-19 What are the five principles that are unique to personnel services?

A: Synchronization, Timeliness, Stewardship, Accuracy and Consistency.


22. Q. Para 15. What is Synchronization?

A: Synchronization is ensuring personnel services are effectively aligned with military actions in time, space, and purpose.


23. Q. Para 16. What is Timeliness?

A: Timeliness ensures decision makers have an access to relevant personnel services information and analysis that support current and future operations.


24. Q. Para 17. What is Stewardship?

A: Stewardship is the careful and responsible management of resources entrusted to the government in order to execute responsible governance.


25. Q. Para 18. What is Accuracy?

A: Accuracy of information impacts the decisions made by commanders and also Soldiers and their Families.


26. Q. Para 19. What is Consistency?

A: Consistency involves providing uniform and compatible guidance and support to forces across all levels of operations.


27. Q. Para 20. What do the principles of the Army Health System (AHS) do?

A:  guide medical planners in developing operational plans which are effective, efficient, flexible, and executable .


28. Q. Para 21-26. What are the principles of the Army Health System (AHS)?

A: Conformity, Proximity, Flexibility, Mobility, Continuity and Control.


29. Q. Para 21. What is Conformity in AHS?

A: Conformity with the tactical plan is the most basic element for effectively providing AHS support.


30. Q. Para 22. What is Proximity in AHS?

A: Proximity is to provide AHS support to sick, injured, and wounded Soldiers at the right time and to keep morbidity and mortality to a minimum.


31. Q. Para 23. What is Flexibility in AHS?

A: Flexibility is being prepared and empowered to shift AHS resources to meet changing requirements.


32. Q. Para 24. What is Mobility in AHS?

A: Mobility is to ensure that AHS assets remain in supporting distance to support maneuvering forces.


33. Q. Para 25. What is Continuity in AHS? 

A: Continuity in care and treatment is achieved by moving the patient through progressive, phased roles of care, extending from the point of injury or wounding to the CONUS-support base.


34. Q. Para 26. What is Control in AHS?

A: Control is required to ensure that scarce AHS resources are efficiently employed and support the tactical and strategic plan.


35. Q. Para 27. What is Unified Action?

A: the synchronization, coordination and integration of activities.


36. Q. Para 28. What is Joint interdependence?

A: the purposeful reliance by one Service’s forces on another Service’s capabilities to maximize the complementary and reinforcing effects of both.


37. Q. Para 29. What does the Air Force and the Air Mobility Command provide?

A: they provide worldwide cargo and passenger airlift, air refueling, and aeromedical evacuation.


38. Q. Para 30. What is Joint logistics over-the-shore operations?

A: Navy and Army forces conduct logistics over-the-shore operations together under a joint force commander.


39. Q. Para 30. How does the Navy support over-the-shore operations?

A: with the use of container off-loading and transfer system and the offshore bulk fuel system.


40. Q. Para 30. How does the Army support over-the-shore operations?

A: the Army provides lighterage, roll-on/rolloff discharge facilities, causeway systems, and shore-based water storage systems.


41. Q. Para 32. What does the strategic base consists of?

A: the Department of Defense and industrial bases.


42. Q. Para 32. What does the Industrial Base do?

A: manufactures, maintains, modifies, and repairs resources required by U.S. forces.


43. Q. Para 32. What does the Industrial Base consist of?

A:  privately and government-owned capabilities.


44. Q. Para 32. What does the Strategic Base do?

A:  generates Army capabilities which are employed across the strategic and operational environments


45. Q. Para 33. What does Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) provide?

A:  sustainment support to Joint Forces during peace and war by providing supply classes.


46. Q. Para 33. What dose DLA Disposition services provide?

A:  material reutilization, marketing, demilitarization and disposal services throughout the world and is an active partner with deployed units in contingency environments.


47. Q. Para 34. What does the United States Transportation Command provide?

A:  common-user and commercial air, land, and sea transportation (including patient movement), terminal management, and aerial refueling to support deployment, sustainment, and redeployment of U.S. forces.


48. Q. Para 34. What are the three component commands that make up the United States Transportation Command? 

A: the Air Mobility Command, the Military Sealift Command and the U.S Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command.


49. Q. Para 35. What is the Defense Finance and Accounting Service responsible for?

A: the delivery of accounting and financial management services for the DOD.


50. Q. Para 36. What do the United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command operations provide?

A: provide space-related tactical planning and support, expertise, advice, and liaison regarding available space capabilities that facilitate joint sustainment operations.


51. Q. Para 38. How is the Theater Army responsible for Sustainment?

A: The Theater Army is responsible for preparation and administration support for the Army Forces assigned or attached to the Combatant Commander.


52. Q. Para 40. What are some examples of the Army’s sustainment Executive Agent responsibilities?

A: Law of War Program; Defense Mortuary Affairs Program; Military Postal Service; Explosive Safety Management; Armed Services Blood Program Office.


53. Q. Para 41. What does Generating forces consist of?

A: Army organizations whose primary mission is to generate and sustain the operational Army’s capabilities for employment.


54. Q. Para 42. What is generating force is responsible for?

A:  moving Army forces to and from ports of embarkation.


55. Q. Para 43. What is an example of an Army generating force?

A: the U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC)


56. Q.Para 43. What does the U.S. Army Materiel Command (USAMC) provide?

A: provides theater support contracting services and Logistics Civil Augmentation Program support to Army forces conducting operations.


57. Q. Para 44. What are Operational Forces?

A:  those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat and the integral supporting elements thereof.


58. Q. Para 45. What functions does the Theater Army HQ perform?

A: functions that include reception, staging, onward movement, and integration; logistics over-the-shore operations; and security coordination.


59. Q. Para 46. What is the role of the Theater Sustainment Command (TSC)?

A: The Theater Sustainment Command (TSC) serves as the senior Army sustainment HQ (less medical) for the Theater Army.


60. Q. Para 46. What does the TSC provide?

A: The TSC provides mission command of units assigned, attached, or under its OPCON capabilities .


61. Q. Para 47. What is the Expeditionary Sustainment Commands (ESC)?

A: force pooled assets and are under the mission command of the TSC.


62. Q. Para 47. What does the ESC do?

A: plans, prepares, executes, and assesses sustainment, distribution, theater opening, and reception, staging, and onward movement operations for Army forces in theater.


63. Q. Para 48. What does the Theater Engineer Command (TEC) serve as?

A: The Theater Engineer Command (TEC) serves as the senior engineer headquarters for a Theater Army, land component headquarters, or potentially a JTF.


64. Q. Para 48. What is the Theater Engineer Command (TEC) designed to do?

A: It is designed to mission command engineer capabilities for all assigned or attached engineer brigades and other engineer units and missions for the joint force land component or Theater Army commander.


65. Q. Para 49. What is the Human Resource Sustainment Center?

A:  a multifunctional organization, and theater-level center assigned to a TSC that integrates and ensures execution of personnel accountability, casualty, and postal functions throughout the theater.


66. Q. Para 50. What is the Financial Management Center?

A: a tailorable financial management unit whose primary mission is to provide technical coordination of all theater finance operations and serve as the principal advisor to the Theater Army G-8 and the TSC commander.


67. Q. Para 51. What does the Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MEDCOM [DS]) serve as?

A: it serves as the senior medical command within the theater.  


68. Q. Para 45-51. What are some of the major sustainment operating force organizations?

A: Theater Sustainment Command (TSC); Theater Engineer Command (TEC); Human Resource Sustainment Center; Financial Management Center; Medical Command (Deployment Support) (MEDCOM [DS]).


69. Q. Para 52. What is Interagency coordination?

A: the interaction that occurs between agencies of the U.S. Government, including the Department of Defense for the purpose of achieving an objective.


​70. Q. Para 52. Which U.S. military sustainment capabilities are frequently requested through Interagency coordination?

A: intratheater airlift; ground transportation of personnel, equipment and supplies; airfield control groups; and port and railhead operations.


71. Q. Para 53. When does Sustainment support to populations generally occur?

A: during stability tasks and defense support of civil authorities.


72. Q. Para 56. What is Decisive Action?

A: Army units seize, retain, and exploit the initiative to gain a position of relative advantage over the enemy


73. Q. Para 56. How is Decisive Action achieved?

A: it is achieved through simultaneous combination of offensive, defensive, and stability tasks that set conditions for favorable conflict resolution.


74. Q. Para 57. What is a Sustaining Operation?

A: an operation at any echelon that enables the decisive operation or shaping operations by generating and maintaining combat power and is inseparable from decisive and shaping operations.


75. Q. Para 57. What does Sustaining operations include?

A: personnel and logistical support, support security, movement control, terrain management, and infrastructure development.


76. Q. Para 58. What is Mission command?

A: the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commander’s intent to empower agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unified land operations.


77. Q. Para 59. What is Sustainment planning? 

A: Sustainment planning indirectly focuses on the threat but more specifically on sustaining friendly forces to the degree that the Army as a whole accomplishes the desired end state.


78. Q. Para 60. What will a successful sustainment plan do?

A: A successful sustainment plan will extend operational reach, prevent culmination or loss of the initiative, manage transitions, exploit possible opportunities, and mitigate risk.


79. Q. Para 61. What is operational reach?

A: distance and duration across which a unit can successfully employ military capabilities.


80. Q. Para 61. How is Operational reach facilitated?

A: by prepositioning stocks; capability to project Army forces and sustainment to an operational environment; to open theater ports; establish forward bases; and to close a theater upon conclusion of an operation.


81. Q. Para 62. What is the Army Prepositioned Stocks (APS) program?

A: an Army strategic program.


82. Q. Para 62. What are the primary purposes of APS?

A: to reduce the initial strategic lift required to support a force projection Army and to sustain the Soldier until lines of communication are established.


83. Q. Para 62. What does the APS phase of the operation focuses on?

A: deployment, reception, drawing equipment, and staging in order to facilitate the integration of forces into the operation.


84. Q. Para 63. What is Force Protection?

A: Force projection is the ability to project instruments of national power from the U. S. or another theater in response to requirements for military operations.


85. Q. Para 63. What does Force Protection include?

A: the processes of mobilization, deployment, employment, sustainment, and redeployment of forces.


86. Q. Para 64. What is Theater Opening?

A: the ability to establish and operate ports of debarkation, to establish a distribution system, and to facilitate throughput for the reception, staging, and onward movement of forces within a theater of operations.


87. Q. Para 65. What are critical components for preparing theater opening?

A: Port opening and port operations.


88. Q. Para 66. What does Basing enable?

A: Basing directly enables and extends operational reach, and involves the provision of sustainable facilities and protected locations from which units can conduct operations.


89. Q. Para 66. What is a base camp?

A: A base camp is an evolving military facility that supports military operations of a deployed unit and provides the necessary support and services for sustained operations.


90. Q. Para 68. What is Theater Closing?

A: The process of redeploying Army forces and equipment from a theater, the drawdown and removal or disposition of Army non-unit equipment and materiel, and the transition of materiel and facilities back to host nation or civil authorities.


91. Q. Para 69. What are the terminating tasks that Army sustainment organizations perform?

A: redeployment of remaining forces, drawdown of non-unit materiel, and transitioning of materiel, facilities and capabilities as specified in national agreements to host nation or civil authorities.


92. Q. Para 70. What does Freedom of action enable?

A: Freedom of action enables commanders with the will to act, to achieve operational initiative and control and maintain operational tempo.


93. Q. Para 71. What is the benefit of Negotiating and establishing agreements?

A: Through negotiation and agreements, Army forces can reduce the military sustainment footprint and resources to focus on higher priority operations requiring greater military sustainment involvement.


94. Q. Para 73. What is Sustainment preparation of the operational environment?

A: the analysis to determine infrastructure, physical environmental, and resources in the operational environment that will optimize or adversely impact friendly forces.


95. Q. Para 74. What is an Offensive Task?

A: offensive task is a task conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain, resources, and population centers.


96. Q. Para 75. What is Defensive Task?

A: defensive task is conducted to defeat an enemy attack, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks.


97. Q. Para 76. What are Stability Tasks?

A: tasks conducted as part of operations outside the United States, to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.


98. Q. Para 78. What is Endurance?

A: the ability to employ combat power anywhere for protracted periods.


99. Q. Para 78. How is Endurance achieved?

A: from the ability to maintain, protect, and sustain forces, regardless of how far away they are deployed, how austere the environment, or how long land power is required.


100. Q. Para 79. What is the Army’s distribution system?

A: a complex of facilities, installations, methods, and procedures designed to receive, store, maintain, distribute, and control the flow of military resources between point of receipt into the military system and point of issue to using activities and units.


101. Q. Para 79. What is In-transit visibility?

A: the ability to track the identity, status, and location of DOD units, and non-unit cargo and passengers; patients and personal property from origin to consignee, or destination across the range of military operations.


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