ADP 3-90 & ADRP 3-90 Offense and Defense 

1. Q. What does ADP 3-90 cover?
A: Offense and Defense

2. Q. Para 1. What is Tactics?
A: is the Employment and Ordered Arrangement of Forces in Relation to each other

3. Q. Para 3. What do tactical operations always require?
A: Tactical Operations Always Require Judgment and Adaptation to the Unique Circumstances of a Specific Situation

4. Q. Para 3. What provides Commanders with a set of tools to use in developing a solution to a tactical problem?
A: Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) 
5. Q. Para 4. What is the tactical level of war?
A: Tactical Level of War is is the Level of War at which Battles and Engagements are Planned and Executed to Achieve Military Objectives Assigned to Tactical Units or Task Forces

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6. Q. Para 5. What is an Engagement?
A: An Engagement is a Tactical Conflict, usually Between Opposing, Lower Echelon Maneuver Forces

7. Q. Para 5. How long do Engagements usually last?
A: They are Usually Short, Executed in terms of Minutes, Hours, or Days

8. Q. Para 6. What is a Battle?
A: a Battle Consists of a Set of related Engagements that lasts Longer and Involves Larger Forces than an Engagement

9. Q. Para 8. Why must Commanders master the art of science and tactics?

A: to Solve the Problems that will Face them on the Battlefield

10 Q. Para 8. What does the art of tactics require from a Commander?

A: it Requires Exercising Intuitive Faculties that Cannot be Learned Solely by Study

11. Q. Para 8. What does the acronym METT-TC stand for?

A: Mission, Enemy, Terrain and weather, Troops and support available, Time available, and Civil considerations

12. Q. Para 9. What are the three interrelated aspects of the art of tactics?

A: 1. the Creative and Flexible Array of means to Accomplish Assigned Missions

2. Decision-Making under Conditions of Uncertainty when faced with a Thinking and Adaptive Enemy

3.  Understanding the Effects of Combat on Soldiers

13. Q. Para 9. Why must Commanders continue to change their tactics?

A: Because the Enemy Changes and Adapts to Friendly Moves during the Planning, Preparation, and Execution of an Operation, there is No Guarantee that Tactics which worked in one Situation will work Again

14. Q. Para 10. What does every Commander need to outwit a willing and able opponent?

A: a High Degree of Creativity and Clarity of Thought 

15. Q. Para 11. What makes Combat one of the most complex human activities?

A: Because Combat is Characterized by Violent Death, Friction, Uncertainty, and Chance. 

16. Q. Para13. What is the science of Tactics?

A: The Science of tactics Encompasses the Understanding of those Military Aspects of Tactics—Capabilities, Techniques, and Procedures—that can be Measured and Codified

17. Q. Para 14. What is a hasty operation?

A: an Operation in which a Commander Directs Immediately Available Forces, using Fragmentary Orders, to Perform Activities with Minimal Preparation, Trading Planning and Preparation Time for Speed of Execution 

18. Q. Para 14. What is an example of a hasty operation?

A: The 9th Armored Division’s Seizure of the Bridge at Remagen in March 1945

19. Q. Para 14. What is a deliberate operation?

A: an Operation in which the Tactical Situation allows the Development and Coordination of Detailed Plans, including Multiple Branches and Sequels

20. Q. Para 14. What is an example of a deliberate operation?

A: The 1st Infantry Division’s Breach Operation during the Opening hours of Operation Desert Storm in 1991

21. Q. Para 15. What does the Commander base the decision to conduct a hasty or deliberate operation on?

A: Current Knowledge of the Situation and an Assessment of whether the Assets Available (to include time) and the Means to Coordinate and Synchronize those Assets are Adequate to Accomplish the Mission

22. Q. Para 16. What are the two things inherent in tactical operations?

A: Uncertainty and Risk 

23. Q. Para 16. What is a critical skill that a Commander must have?

A: Knowing when there is Enough Information to Make a Decision within the Higher Commander’s Intent and Constraints is Part of the Art of Tactics

24. Q. Para 17. When can a Commander be less deliberate in planning and preparing for an operation?

A: when Facing a Clearly Less Capable and Less Prepared Enemy

25. Q. Para 17. What are actions on contact?

A: a Series of Combat Actions, often Conducted nearly Simultaneously, Taken on Contact with the Enemy to Develop the Situation

26. Q. Para 18. What is an important factor in reducing risk?

A: How much Intelligence is Available About the Enemy

27. Q. Para 19. How can a Commander reduce risk associated with any situation?

A: by Increasing Knowledge of the Terrain and Friendly, Neutral, and Enemy Forces

28. Q. Para 19. How does a Commander have a greater risk or making a poor decision?

A: if that Individual’s Situational Understanding is Incomplete or Faulty

29. Q. Para 20. How can a Commander partially compensate for a lack of intelligence?

A: by Being Flexible in Troop Dispositions through an Increase in the Depth of the Security Area, the Size and Number of Security
Units, and the Size of the Reserve

30. Q. Para 22. What is Joint Interdependence?

A: the Purposeful Reliance by one Service’s Forces on another Service’s Capabilities to Maximize the Complementary and Reinforcing Effects of both

31. Q. Para 23. What are the twelve principles of joint operations?

A: 1. Objective

2. Offensive

3. Mass

4. Maneuver

5. Economy of Force

6. Unity of Command

7. Security

8. Surprise

9. Simplicity

10. Perserverance

11. Legitimacy

12. Restraint

32. Q. Para 24. What are the eight operational variables?

A: 1. Political

2. Military

3. Economic

4. Social

5. Information

6. Infrastructure

7. Physical Environment

8. Time 

33. Q. Para 24. What is operational variables?

A: those Aspects of the Operational Environment, both Military and Nonmilitary, that may differ from  one Operational Area to another and affect Operations 

34. Q. Para 25. What are the six mission variables?

A: 1. Mission

2. Enemy

3. Terrain & Weather

4. Troops & support available

5. Time available

6. Civil considerations

35. Q. Para 25. What is critical during the military cecision-making process?

A: Analyzing Mission Variables

36. Q. Para 26.  What are the fifteen basic tactical concepts?

A: 1. Area of Operations

2. Combined Arms

3. Concept of Operaitons

4. Decisive Engagement

5. Defeat in Detail

6. Flanks

7. Maneuver

8. Operation

9. Operational Frameworks

10. Piecemeal Commitment

11. Reconstitution 

12. Reserve

13. Rules of Engagement

14. Tactical Mobility

15. Uncommitted Forces

37. Q. Para 27. What are the Army’s tactical echelons?

A: the Fire Team or Crew, through the Squad, Section, Platoon, Company, Battalion, Brigade, and Division

38. Q. Para 28. What is operational initiative?

A: Setting or Dictating the Terms of Action throughout an Operation

39. Q. Para 28. How should Army forces strike the enemy?

A: using Offensive Action in Times, Places, or Manners for which the Enemy is Not Prepared to Seize,  Retain, and Exploit the Operational Initiative

40. Q. Para 28. Defeating the enemy will ultimately require what?

A: our Forces Being On the Offensive

41. Q. Para 29. What is the main purpose of the offensive?

A: to Defeat, Destroy, or Neutralize the Enemy Force and to Secure Decisive Terrain, to Deprive the Enemy of Resources, to Gain
Information, to Deceive and Divert the Enemy, to Hold the Enemy in Position, to Disrupt his Attack, and to Set the Conditions for Future Successful Operations

42. Q. Para 30. What is the main feature of the offensive tasks?

A: Taking and Maintaining the Initiative

43. Q. Para 30. What characterizes the conduct of offensive tasks?

A: Audacity, Concentration, Surprise, and Tempo 

44. Q. Para 30. What is the main focus of the Commander for the offense?

A: to Expedite the Outcome

45. Q. Para 31. If a Commander is in a difficult situation such as numerical inferiority, what could he do to have a successful outcome?

A: he Should Be Bold and Handle the Situation Audaciously

46. Q. Para 32. What is Concentration?

A: the Ability to Mass Effects Without Massing Large Formations and is therefore Essential for Achieving and Exploiting Success

47. Q. Para 33. How do Commanders achieve surprise?

A: by Striking the Enemy at a Time, Place, or Manner for which the Enemy is Not Physically or Mentally Ready and by Varying the Direction, Boldness, Means, and Force of the Attack

48. Q. Para 33. How does surprise effect the enemy?

A: Surprise Delays Enemy Reactions, Overloads and Confuses Enemy Decision makers and Command and Control Systems, Induces  Psychological Shock in Enemy Soldiers and Leaders, and Reduces the Coherence of the Enemy Defense

49. Q. Para 33. What are some things Commanders can do to gain surprise?

A: Being Unpredictable and Using Military Deception, Cunning, and Guile also help to Gain Surprise

50. Q. Para 34. What is Tempo?

A: the Rate of Speed and Rhythm of Military Operations over Time with Respect to the Enemy

51. Q. Para 34. What is essential for maintaining the initiative?

A: Controlling or Altering that Rate and Tempo

52. Q. Para 34. What effect on the enemy can an aggressive application of maneuver and fires? 

A: it Can Keep an Enemy Off Balance and in a Reactive State

53. Q. Para 34. What type of tempo do commanders want to maintain against the enemy?

A: a Tempo that Maintains Relentless Pressure on the Enemy to Prevent the Enemy from Recovering from the Shock and Effects of the Attack

54. Q. Para 35. What are the four primary offensive tasks? 

A: Movement to Contact, Attack, Exploitation and Pursuit

55. Q. Para 36. What is movement to contact?

A: an Offensive Task Designed to Develop the Situation and to Establish or Regain Contact

56. Q. Para 36. What is the goal of movement to contact?

A: to Make Initial Contact with a Small Element while Retaining Enough Combat Power to Develop the Situation and Mitigate the Associated Risk

57. Q. Para 37. What is Attack?

A: an Offensive Task that Destroys or Defeats Enemy Forces, Seizes and Secures Terrain, or Both

58. Q. Para 37. What are some Attack types?

A: Ambush, Counterattack, Demonstration, Spoiling Attack, Feint, and Raid

59. Q. Para 38. What is Exploitation?

A: an Offensive Task—usually following the Conduct of a Successful Attack—Designed to Disorganize the Enemy in Depth

60. Q. Para 39. What is Pursuit?

A: an Offensive Task Designed to Catch or Cut Off a Hostile Force Attempting to Escape, with the Aim of Destroying it

61. Q. Para 40. What are some Common offensive control measures?

A: Assault Position, Assault Time, Attack-By-Fire Position, Attack Position, Axis of Advance, Direction of Attack, Final Coordination
Lines, Limit of Advance, Lines of Departure, Objective, Point of Departure, Probable Line of Deployment, Rally Point, Support-By-Fire Position, and Time of Attack

62. Q. Para 41. What is Maneuver?

A: the Employment of Forces in the Operational Area through Movement in Combination with Fires to Achieve a Position of Advantage in Respect to the Enemy

63. Q. Para 41. What are the forms of Maneuver?

A: Envelopment, Flank Attack, Frontal Attack, Infiltration, Penetration, and Turning Movement

64. Q. Para 44. What is the primary purpose Commanders choose to defend?

A: to Create Conditions for a Counteroffensive that Allows Army Forces to Regain the Initiative

65. Q. Para 44. What are other reasons Commanders will choose to conduct a defense?

A: to Retain Decisive Terrain or Deny a Vital Area to the Enemy, to Attrit or Fix the Enemy as a Prelude to the Offense, in response to Surprise Action by the Enemy, or to Increase the Enemy’s Vulnerability by Forcing the Enemy to Concentrate Forces

66. Q. Para 45. What is the key feature of defensive battle?

A: Striving to Regain the Initiative from the Attacking Enemy 

67. Q. Para 45. What are some characteristics of the defense that a defending Commander will use to regain the Initiative?

A: Disruption, Flexibility, Mass and Concentration, Preparation, and Security

68. Q. Para 46. How does the defender disrupt the attacker’s tempo and synchronization?

A: by Constantly Seeking to Wrest the Initiative from the Attack and Preventing the Attacker from Massing Overwhelming Combat Power Against Elements of the Defending Force

69. Q. Para 46. Why would defenders seek to separate the enemy’s forces?

A: so that Selected Enemy Units or Capabilities can be Isolated and Then Defeated, Destroyed, or  Neutralized 

70. Q. Para 47. Who decides where and when combat will take place?

A: The Attacking Force 

71. Q. Para 47. What are the four major activities of the operations process?

A: Plan, Prepare, Execute and Assess

72. Q. Para 47. What are the three integrating processes?

A: Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield, Targeting, and Risk Management

73. Q. Para 47. How do Commanders add flexibility to their basic plans?

A: by Organizing their Defense in Depth, Retaining Reserves, Designing Counterattack Plans, and Preparing to Assume the Offensive

74. Q. Para 48. What does maneuver allow the defender?

A: Maneuver allows the Defender to take Full Advantage of the Area of Operations and to Mass and Concentrate when Desirable

75. Q. Para 49. Why do defending commanders retain reserves?

A: as a means of Ensuring Mission Accomplishment and for Exploiting Opportunities through Offensive Action

76. Q. Para 51. What do preparations involve?

A: Positioning Forces in Depth, improving Terrain to Favor the Defense, Wargaming Plans, Integrating  Available Fires into those Plans, Organizing the Force for Movement and Support, Rehearsing, and Taking Measures to Protect the Force

77. Q. Para 52. What is the purpose of security measures?

A: to Coordinate and Synchronize the Defense, to provide Early Warning, and to begin the process of Disrupting the Integrity of the Enemy Attack as early as possible. Commanders Must provide for the Protection of their Forces

78. Q. Para 52. What are the different tasks that the higher commander can assign the security force?

A: The Higher Commander can Assign the Security Force the Task of Cover, Guard, Screen, or Area Security for the Protected Force

79. Q. Para 53. What are the three basic defensive tasks?

A: Area Defense, Mobile Defense, and Retrograde

80. Q. Para 53. What is area defense?

A: Area Defense is the Defensive Task that concentrates on Denying Enemy Forces Access to Designated Terrain for a Specific Time Rather than Destroying the Enemy Outright

81. Q. Para 53. What is mobile defense?

A: Mobile Defense is a Defensive Task that Concentrates on the Destruction or Defeat of the Enemy through a Decisive Attack by a Striking Force

82. Q. Para 53. What is Retrograde?

A: Retrograde is a Defensive Task that involves Organized Movement Away From the Enemy

83. Q. Para 54. What are the three forms of retrograde?

A: The Three Forms of the Retrograde are Delay, Withdrawal, and Retirement

84. Q. Para 54. What is delaying operation?

A: Delaying Operation is an Operation in which a Force Under Pressure Trades Space for Time by Slowing Down the Enemy’s Momentum and Inflicting Maximum Damage on the Enemy Without becoming Decisively Engaged

85. Q. Para 54. What is Withdrawal?

A: Withdrawal is a Planned Retrograde Operation in which a Force in Contact Disengages from an Enemy Force and Moves in a Direction Away from the Enemy

86. Q. Para 54. What is Retirement?

A: Retirement is a Form of Retrograde in which a Force out of Contact Moves Away from the Enemy

87. Q. Para 56. What are some other control measures that a Commander conducting a defense can employ?

A: Designating the Security Area, the Main Battle Area with its Associated Forward Edge of the Battle Area, and the Echelon Support Area 

88. Q. Para 57. What are the three forms of defense?

A: Defense of Linear Obstacle, Perimeter Defense, Reverse Slope Defense

89. Q. Para 59. What are some of the tactical enabling tasks?

A: Reconnaissance, Security, Troop Movement, Relief in Place, Passage of Lines, Encirclement Operations, and Urban Operations

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